Order to be able to learn from.. Design training modules according to the model of Blum (Alatghani learning) or learning to be able

To achieve this end, training modules are designed according to this principle   The best thing about this is a principle of educational models interested model Baltmher Bloom (Alatghani learning) or to be able to learn from. The model consists of the following steps:
* Confirm the tribal knowledge.
* Calendar tribal.
* Teaching and formative Calendar.
* Intensive training.
* Calendar dimensional.
* Therapeutic program.
This can be illustrated steps to be able to learn from the curriculum as presented as follows:
1) The unit begins with the evidence: know their subject matter, and the time available to them, and vocabulary, and goals, and methods of evaluation   The learner needs to master, and references necessary for learning.
2) Unit is composed of:
** Preliminary activities, creating student unit topics.
** Test before me, measuring student's knowledge tribal themes unity.
** Topics module, and consists of view the topic, and learning activities.
** Self-tests, measure student progress, and the degree of his mastery of the objectives of the aphid.
** Programmed learning materials, it had not of expert to understand and focus.
** Activities and closing summary to review all the particles displayed in the unit.
** Post-test, measures enable the student to the basic elements of the unit.
** End of the unit, a reminder to its objectives, and guidelines for non of expert.

The principle of training rather than learning.. Training to acquire skills and learning trends and the acquisition of knowledge and information

The training curriculum on the adequacy of each unit in the special training, not educational unit, because in possession of a degree of training, skills and attitudes, while learning as much as the acquisition of knowledge and information, education training is different from the objectives and content.

The principle of linguistic skills.. Sufficiently grammatical, spelling enough, enough reading, the adequacy of written communication, oral communication adequacy

Language two main components: the cognitive component represents the concepts of language description, and the rules of grammar and their morphological and acoustic, semantic and spelling, and linguists call language ability. And component performance piece, which is the individual production of written language or words, and he calls the bigeye statement, and offset side Alastkabbala language of reading and listening, he calls the bigeye identification. Valkvaih in the eyes of this approach means the (estimated)   It consists of the estimated theoretical knowledge (knowledge base), and the skill of performing (speed and quality in the application).
 Knowledge, not intended for its own sake, nor room for measurement and evaluation, but rather is a means to help create progress and the goal of the learner to perform the skill and the mastery of which is appointed by and mastery, Valmharh is the target, an area measurement,
Based on the degree of being able to judge the success of the student or Rsoppe. If the performance is the goal, skill, language skills, the curriculum complies selected aspects of skill (language lesson), and avoids the theoretical knowledge that does not stop them master the skill. From this point of the language department curriculum competencies to five core competencies are: 
1 - grammatical competence (To adjust the product of language)  
2 - enough spelling (To adjust the graphic written)
3 - adequate literacy (Skill learning)
4 - the adequacy of written communication (Production of written language)
5 - the adequacy of oral communication (Listening, and speaking)
Or to the three elements as divided Suhaibani Represent a linguistic lesson, namely:
1 - the adequacy of the statement (linguistic performance): the ability to produce language, governed by the rules of language, language and customs of the group. The adequacy of the oral communication (speech), and the adequacy of written communication (writing).
2 - the adequacy of identification (language reception): the ability to understand the linguistic message (heard or read) And analysis, and criticism, and interact with, and use. The competence in reading and listening.

Approach to language skills.. Upgrading the skills of the learner and the development of

Approach is "skills language": for secondary education new technology in the teaching of Arabic in Saudi Arabia, making the learner-centered education, Fadrih drawing flak his thinking, and investor knowledge earlier, and advance the needs of skills and language skills, performance, and supposedly the beginning of the student over the two stages seminars studied in which most of the doors of way, and all sections of the spelling, and read a number of literary texts, prose and poetry, and analyzed some of them; So try this method to upgrade their skills, learner development, outlines the most important arts written expression as well as increase its oral expression in different situations that may expose Arabic language has a sound and good technique. The approach tends to define the concepts of learner's necessary and important about the language, functions and methods,
The art of writing and expression, and we find that the attention was already training on the new arts; especially in the field of oral communication, reading, and intensive methods of data collection, compilation and writing career, according to learning strategies and education. From this point of the curriculum is designed in a new way for study of language; to achieve a very different habits and skills of language used by the learner every day, in his writings, and his reading, and learning, and connected to others.

Arab experience in the field of qualified.. Development of education for the diagnosis and Arab reality of the situation and progress towards the example

I tried some third world countries that is the educational model based on skills and situations and embodied in their curricula, and these countries are: Morocco, Tunisia, Oman, Saudi Arabia, the belief in the need of the learner to such skills in the context of the development of teaching Arabic diagnosis and the reality of the situation and progress towards the example.
2.1.1 Kingdom of Morocco:
The Ministry of National Education In the Kingdom of Morocco to adopt the approach of teaching competencies, and apply them to educational institutions since the 2002 2003 school year after a comprehensive review of educational curricula and re-formulation of objectives in line
With the new curriculum, and focused on the importance of the National Charter surveillance Ongoing examinations, and the need to develop to improve the quality of education at all school levels. It was therefore necessary to resort to plan calendar suitable for monitoring Continuous and periodic examinations of the other standard, and can adopt the approach that consists Of the following themes: building a framework of reference for the calendar from the identification and function Evaluation, and analysis of the official curriculum and the end of the development agenda for the allocation of competences on Evaluation. 
2.1.2 Tunisia
As did Tunisia in the review of educational curricula, and adopt a program of teaching competencies, and began the initial phase of the APC in an attempt to build an integrated manner. This is based on learning style to the basic concepts :
I: basic skills: a set of integrated capabilities for knowledge and mental and motor skills employed in significant positions. Which is the minimum required to continue learning and the subsequent acquisition of new competencies.
II: the final target fusion: an integrated competencies requires owned at the end of the year or class to continue learning later. This objective constitutes the basic skills to be practiced in the adequacy of major and significant positions.
2.1.3 Sultanate of Oman:
As well as the faculties of education in the Sultanate of Oman employ the entrance of skills, in an attempt to develop frameworks of Omani teachers, highly qualified, to fill the needs of the education sector at various levels and specialties, are interested in the quality of graduates and their efficiency and their ability to perform well and adapt and keep pace with developments. I put the Directorate General of the Faculties of Education Ministry of Education Ali plans and mechanisms to update the teachers to keep pace with the development witnessed by the Sultanate in the educational process, and to make these schools keep pace with conventions that include the education sector.
And the "Guide for the induction in primary education colleges of education" The new roles of teachers, especially teachers of basic education and professional Kvayate.
2.1.4 Saudi Arabia:
Language skills curriculum designed primarily for the leopard high school (the school dedicated to the experience of secondary flexible), and care is taken to be valid for the application in the scientific section of the high school. And was initially an experiment to a particular school, then studied and circulated to forty-two schools in the Kingdom, including six schools in the city of Riyadh.
Experience and skills did not include all the stages, but were limited to high school, and the Arabic language only.

Concept of adequacy in educational studies and psychological.. Force ready to do some acts such as the adequacy of management, which is practiced in the limits of the law

Is sufficiently new concept, whether in psychology or in pedagogy, which made ​​the scientists Speak enough about eating in preparations or capabilities or tendencies or personality traits, which represent the psychological characteristics that distinguish individuals. With the concept sufficiently interferes with the view of linguistics to talk about knowledge when the speaker, and being able to produce an infinite number of sentences as well as to understand, so the concept of efficiency is closer to psycholinguistics. It is sufficiently known here as a force ready to do some actions, to: the adequacy of a department, and that practice within the law, a knowledge of good conduct. Sued Ghraib Adequately defined the concept of readiness, a psychological concept, after giving him strength, It is ready to do power, not only willing to do, here are a reference to the level of proficiency that is the willingness of him, but who wants to prepare? Is he ready innate? Or physical readiness, or any kind of preparation is talking about? Has no self-preparation to do the work but can not do Is this enough? It is known that preparation is the ability of the latency as we shall see. The Aldirij indicates that the skills "capabilities acquired permit to conduct work in a particular context, and consists of content knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes are integrated in a compound, as the individual who gained by raising and the recruitment and employment in order to confront a problem and resolve the status of specific" It has not the capacity but the capacity, not the capacity of innate but acquired educated, shows the impact the behavior of the individual and his work, here are linked to something done without referring to the extent allowed by permit this ability to do the work and the proportion of it, then later found Adakhl in the content of competence between the concepts , became sufficiently contain the capacity of knowledge, skill and ability and a trend, or rather have the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes, what is the capacity that have the ability? Perhaps it was intended degree possible the ability possessed by the individual to invest among knowledge, skills and capabilities to solve something. And definition of this is in line with the vision of psychology of language, the scope of linguistic behavior, and the two main Mahourah: Allgoaan acquisition and performance, and share a knowledge of the individual systems. 
Efficiency as defined as "the possibility of non-visible include a number of achievements or performances". This suggests not only the possibility to measure achievement or performance, the possibility of internal Valkvaih not watch, but Anjazatha is seen, and therefore shows how closely enough to performance and achievement.
I knew enough that it "rules owned by the person of his language, which is either innate capabilities and templates are born equipped with the person or the rules of voice and grammatical acquired Baankake my words a certain community members. And the ability to use language in a given situation by a particular speaker".
Valkvaih here took two dimensions: a fungal owned language speaker, and after my work belongs to the individual as a result of acquired learning and contact with other, and that the rules in this century, took the dimension of communicative competence, verifies speaker in the use of these rules in certain situations.
As my generation Valkvaih has "a system of conceptual knowledge (intellectual and practical skills) which are organized into papules procedural managed under the category of positions on the task of identifying and resolving problem actively and effectively". Here, combining the mental level and skill level, which are placed in the overlap to come up practical measures to solve the problem a specific activity level of these measures of effectiveness, on the other hand has become sufficiently systems, means a system of diverse knowledge held by the speaker of language.
The Flip Pernod has introduced in its definition is a knowledge resources, says that is enough: "The ability to mobilize the customary set of resources (knowledge, capabilities, information ...) in order to face a number of situations appropriately and effectively". And here we stand at the term which means the ability of the individual being able to able to invest its resources of knowledge and different knowledge and information capabilities to counter what hampered. And close to it, the definition Hamdaoui, Which shows that the efficiency range of capabilities, skills and knowledge, armed with the student to meet a range of situations and obstacles and problems that require finding effective solutions are appropriate, effective, and known also as "a person's ability to activate the resources of knowledge different to meet the specific type of situations" Has enough capacity to link, which also means the person is unable to take advantage of the knowledge resources, but is highlighted here by the focus to accomplish a specific type of situations. Add to the utilitarian aspect that appears in the phrase "activation of resources," but the question still arises is this ability that enables the individual to activate the resources of doing something?What percentage? In order to get to power on the individual owning enough.
There are definitions of procedural learning stems from the approach represented by the owner, if the student's educational enter in the definition, so that shows how the student is unable to take advantage of previous knowledge, whether intellectual or acquired in the face of situations in order to solve them. It appears from this that the concept of adequacy is flexibility, which makes it includes knowledge and skills, and can act against a range of situations, solve problems and adapt to any new condition or complex, to accomplish various tasks. This concept is no longer based on teaching knowledge and restrict the teacher, but now makes the learner at the center of attention, and can be effective to invest in various concrete situations. And interfere with this concept as provided in their statement Allsaon term enough. It is only the inner lining of achievement and the model underlying the acquired and non-visible and noticeable only achievements and behaviors indicative, but achievement is thus expressed sufficiently in the special status belongs to this category, and can use the term task or the result of a sign of achievement and performance, so that the student is able to implement the Fund or what model of wooden boards, this is enough, and achievement is building a wooden box as a specific size, using hand tools with wooden boards to provide appropriate. And therefore has expanded the concept of competence was associated with the willingness to prepare for the power to do, and capabilities associated with acquired That allow behavior, and associated Invisible to the opportunity, has been linked to conceptual knowledge, and the dimension associated with innate capacity, rules and practical dimension. What is the link between these concepts which are in fact indicators of the general concept of adequacy? Is it for synonymy?

Concept of adequacy in modern linguistics.. The ability of the speaker that the listener a perfect result from the implicit rules of an infinite number of sentences lead the process of speaking

Used the term "sufficiency" of the corresponding English term (Competence ) Which refers to two concepts: first: the ability: which lies at the individual and enable him to produce an infinite number of sentences. Second: Queen linguistic. Daweesh has translated the word (Competence (B) the adequacy) of the first book (Hectr Haemmerli) to an end, but mixed with as little Subaie this concept is the concept of another It translates the concept of (Proficiency) Pkmutai language proficiency And interpreted by the sense of competence as well, and translates the same word in the sense of efficiency. At the same time translates the concept of (linguistic Competence) Pkmutai language proficiency. The translator uses the word (efficient) as opposed to the word (Competence). The author argues that the ability or Cultural competence (Cultural Competence ) Is more important than knowledge of mind when it comes to teaching, the knowledge he meant the mental capacity or efficiency linguistics (Linguistic Competence ), Which is the closest it contrasts with the heart of his theory. According to the prevailing view in modern linguistic theory, the ability or efficiency linguistics (Linguistic Competence ) Is the embodiment or representative of the Queen of linguistic (Language Faculty ). Hence, we find that Hectr Haemmerli has been used (Linguistic Competence ) In the sense of knowledge and mental efficiency, competence and ability, and this latest problem in the translation of the term and moved into Arabic, which led to multiple and overlapping concepts. On the other hand, I find that Baker met Chomsky term (adequacy ) And genetic susceptibility (capacity ) The ability and translated Fihri (Competence ) And capacity (capacity ) Efficiency and capacity. The adequacy Vkablha b (adequacy ). This disparity in return for the term, the consequent problem of overlap in the concept. 
So we find that the linguists have discussed the concept of adequacy, which showed a range of theoretical and methodological approaches that reached to the formulation of templates can be said today that it settled in its final or almost theoretical. These approaches have ranged from description to explanation, which led to the refinement of scientific instruments that touch the phenomenon of linguistic knowledge in at least some aspects of the phenomenon is related to some aspects of linguistic creativity in general. Therefore, the search in the mechanisms employed by the adequacy of the speakers, for the production of the mark in the form of the performance of language is able to complete the process of communication between human beings, with the exercise of control by the basal, or the so-called linguistic knowledge. I put scientific hypotheses about a component is not observable a (sufficiently). And these become sufficiently in the eyes of linguists needs to be understood internally set of evidence to determine what it is. Were bilateral efficiency and performance, which is among the conceptual binaries that have been associated as little Muhammad al- theories of thought and language curricula. The distinction between bilateral Dossoser speech and language, social language and not in accordance with the speaker, but the production represents an unknown manner. The speech is an individual, a performance piece side executive produced by the individual. Chomsky has been met in the concept (of adequacy) and (performance) with Dossoser in concept (the language), and (to speak), in particular the shift from a fixed level in the language to the level of mobile. I knew the language he has competence (Competence ), A knowledge of the speaker in his own language, and speech performance, achievement, verbal (Performance), Which result from this knowledge from the words of verified in the positions of concrete. Chomsky and the difference between efficiency and therefore performance, promise a fundamental difference between the two teams, there is a performance has a direct reflection of the vulnerability, but reflected a number of under ideal conditions that are related to the Speaker and listener. Valkvaih speaker listener has the ability to produce the perfect, from the implicit rules, an infinite number of sentences lead the process of speaking. These tacit rules "efficient adequacy   Must give the full set of all infinite range of sentences and structural description of structural description Refers to how understood by the speaker the listener ideal ". and these rules are generating "system of laws can be used continuously for an unlimited number of structures", and the system of laws that divides "to the components the three main in the rules obstetric a - components of grammar and Alphenologih and semantic ". The performance of rhetoric, is to use real-time language within a particular context ... It is therefore a reflection of the adequacy of language, and its move from being forced to exist already. It is here we find that these bilateral linguists have been filled since Chomsky introduced to now, and therefore there is a difference between mental knowledge of the speaker, which is what he calls Chomsky care of himself (Hiscompetence ) And accomplished performance and the words, which he calls the (His performance ). The concept of adequacy when Chomsky does not align to align fully the concept of language when Dossoser, so that the language when Dossoser is not only a warehouse and a system grammatically no force in the mind. However, the language proficiency advocated by Chomsky and his followers were limited as mentioned some of them sufficiently grammatical Grammatical Competence   ; Prompting Hymes and Halliday to propose what they called communicative competence which includes knowledge assets of speech and methods, and taking into account the target audience, with the ability to diversify to speak, as appropriate, in addition to the conscious knowledge of grammar and vocabulary. According to this focused theory obstetric manufacturing to analyze the ability of speaker language to produce sentences never heard before and understand, and distinguished between language proficiency (Queen linguistic) and performance, Valkvaih language defined as tacit knowledge rules of the language in which it exists in the mind of speaker, language, a fact that potential behind verbal performance, which deviates in fact a bit about, which is heading in different circumstances to speak. While known as the verbal performance of the individual using this knowledge in the process of speaking. It is also a reflection of The Michel Zakaria for the adequacy of language, in which some deviations from the laws of language, and can be detected in his performance based on implicit knowledge of the rules of the language, enough to return to any particular language. It is here, and found the structure of deep and surface structure, and the authority of Chomsky in that it is impossible to come up with rules identical or similar to the adequacy of a native speaker of the language in the relations of meaning given only to the surface structure of sentences, ie the order in which they appear the words in the sentence.
As for Ivandomski has put enough on it, "a system of rules and principles which are represented mentally, which enables the speaker to understand the sentences alive, and enable sentences to express ideas; as linked to votes fingerprints. Belongs to the adequacy of the speaker grammatical abilities structural, semantic and Alfonologih, which requires conformity expressions with as expressed in the language-specific, also includes provisions for good casting formal and semantic, and reference expressions, and uniformity of semantic and multi-semantic, and the degree of deviation ", indicating that this system which is sufficiently represented in the structure of the mind and shows the sense of achievement.This calls for enough to say that tacit knowledge in, and performance use of language in concrete situations.As well as acquired enough knowledge, performance did verified my words. This also means that the performance is the way to have enough; not sufficiently aware only of acts of linguistic performance. And then I came back enough to build an ideal default, at the time that the performance result of linguistically and realistic. This raised the problem of discrimination Auissa between linguists and scholars of psycholinguistics, is the problem of determining what facts should be taken into account when determining competence, and those events that should be excluded, in that it is appropriate occurrences of. And therefore associated with the concept of the ability of the speaker enough capacity to produce an infinite number of sentences, and linked with the knowledge and tacit rules, and associated with the system, which can be speaker of the sentences they live. In addition to other engagements will be announced later. And looked razor to the language proficiency of the starting points: first tenet: that it "means, on the one hand, Astdkhal rules of the Arabic language, in its voice, and formats morphological, and patterns of their camel, and throughout the Oarebha, and the implications of wording that the figures used, and methods in the statement, and the provisions drawn by the written, It means, on the other hand, the ability to install an unlimited number of sentences in Arabic and in accordance with those rules. The starting point the second: it is "the ability of communication is reflected in the faces of the functionality of language, and Taatmzar in reading in Arabic reading aloud, going on according to the rules developed, transparent inequalities meanings, move away from the monotony, and discover in reading the silent Mahh, and hearing the alert, and expression of oral Petite normal spontaneous convincing, and the expression written OK to serve as a straight on the rules of all the Arab. In addition to the ability to use the dictionary to achieve different kinds of semantic and control buildings, and to investigate ... Thus we find Moosa had given enough linguistic dimension and dimension Mrasaa Tmthleea, meet on the achievement of communicative function of language. Not only that but also the motives and mechanisms to achieve the dimensions of competence sought at the individual level and university level, and presentation to explain the concept and its applications in linguistics, education, and the mechanisms employed, said Musa as well as the structure of the standard is published in the dimensions of five, are:
1 Dimension I: to benefit from the knowledge of the modern tongue; given the terms of the language is a system form a coalition of the levels of integrated organically interrelated.
2 Dimension II: benefit from the knowledge of the tongue education; given the terms of the language is a tool of communication.
3 Dimension III: The systematic requirement to stimulate the learner to seek knowledge from various sources.
4 the fourth dimension: the requirement applied based on the employment of vocabulary in the questions require a private mental smartness.
5 fifth dimension: the investment potential of some students who save queens creative "construction." And thus enable the razor functional manner to get out enough of the reality within which mental performance piece. And between the faces of their application in teaching Arabic.

Concept of adequacy in the dictionaries and books of old.. Do it and reach the desired degree of

Indicates the Arab lexicon in the monitoring of the meanings of (enough), he said: Enough is enough if the adequacy of the matter, said: Acetkvih is Vkvanyh, and say: Enough's enough for any of this matter. It is said: the adequacy and sufficient for him Maonth Enough thing: enough and settled for him. It is here that a glimpse of these meanings is taking place on two concepts:
I: do the dictionaries did not specify the level of play, whether high or low, and the proportion of the rise and fall.
II: Access to the desired degree of desired whether physically or morally. And then took another turn in the dictionaries define the meaning of competence when it noted that the peer Alkov language in which efficient, and may want him Vijvvo efficient and dwell.
It was here also that the lexicon under the said Article (sang) in the sense that singing is dispensed and efficiency, and thus the term synonymous with the singing of the adequacy of the lexical frame. The signs of - well - that the competence to be: singing, as stated in the meaning of the verb (Enough) in the hadeeth: "Whoever reads last two verses of Surat Al-Baqarah at night will suffice him" any Ogntah for the night. It was said they were the least acceptable of reading in the night. P (your phone) in the sense Ogntah and have made ​​him sing, and it appears in the phrase "less is acceptable" level of competence as "the least acceptable," which indicates that there are levels of adequacy as may be few or many, or more or less ... and it Valkvaih have different levels and different proportions of the few to too many and unacceptable to the League.. There are a few of the adequacy and there are large enough ... I refer also to the receipt of the term efficiency in the books of heritage in the words of the owners, it is stated in explaining the verse) it says to the believers because enough about that Amdkm Lord with three thousand angels, two houses that the meaning of efficiency: bridging the close friendship and do it. And responded well when I'm much in the interpretation of the meaning), which came down from heaven water, as much as says: "... it sends it as needed and sends rain as far enough" Valkvaih here means as much as a need in the compared to saying "as needed" or mean enough, or as much as enough. And the like are also given in Sahih Muslim in saying that "the ability of maintenance competence" the ability of any need. But enough with al-Bayhaqi said in the verse "... and puts his trust in God only knew the state of cells and efficiency..." it means singing.
And also reported this word when bigeye in commenting on the words of Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah honor his face, "the value of each human being is improving," says: "If not stand this book only on this floor to have seen enough healing and rewarding singer, but to have seen that utopia on efficiency and not to fall short of Goal ". This means that efficiency is not the end, there are preferred, the level of the levels to be realized to reach the end, and this concept is almost set when I'm taking in saying: "I, God willing, and its aid and length and his will was informed of that over the amount that is sufficient, and made ​​the grace of God led the way to the end ", it does not accept the competence but also aspires to a higher level to reach the end, and this also demonstrates that there is some sufficiently above the ambition to be achieved to reach the end. The word enough when Jarjaani in saying: "... Without Alakhalad to stomp and leave the view and the cover were the eyes of some people he should be in this alone is enough and over enough" in the sense the degree of sufficiency and access to limit or above the limit, With this evidence of levels of competence.
The Mokri gathered enough with the ability to say: "... established a glorified the argument and the difference between it and the will and gave enough of capacity" The ability in this statement is more general than enough, and sufficiently part of the capacity, and this is contrary to what it will become clear later, in terms of their participation in the concept, and sometimes Tradfhma, as well as the ability of the part of adequacy, and efficiency of a more general ability. So proceed with the question: How do we know enough as the ability of the adequacy of capacity?
It is clear to me from the previous concepts that are enough to do something, and access to a certain degree of proficiency, these vary depending on the degree of the person doing it, so as to reach this enough sometimes to the level of excellence within the standards of admissibility.
So depending on the variety of concepts directed the owner and building, and took place in its entirety on the concepts of neighboring or approaching them away, linked Baalaúq linked, does not depart from the following concepts: readiness, ability, knowledge, the Queen, skill, and its relation to performance and achievement. Before the start of a statement in the approach of these concepts or refrained from enough I start talking about enough in modern linguistics.

Education and jobs: transforming cultural heritage, social adjustment, the development of culture and heritage, to provide the human potential of life

Education is the spirit of social life and perform vital functions and enable human societies of the elements of its existence. Tattabramlah and necessary for a person in the levels of the community and society and the individual rights that enable it to maintain his sex instincts and directing and organizing the development of emotions and inclinations, commensurate with the community.
Among the multiple functions performed by the motherfuckin 'education are:
1 - convert the cultural heritage of a society and move through the sequence of generations and the conditions: as Ibn Khaldun's science and learning is normal in every society.
2 - Social and cultural adaptation of the members of the community: the process through which the integration of the individual to society.
3 - Development of Culture and Heritage Education is working on an all-new addition to the human cultural record of society and thus movement of these innovations from generation to generation.
4 - provide the human potential of life: childhood humanity known disability so the education being able to acquire the skills and mental capacity and physical and psychological help to cope, Education is necessary to secure the conditions of life.

Methods of education.. Education spontaneous, education-oriented

There are many ways and methods used in socialization may vary these methods depending on the nature and style of intensity used in education.
  In spite of the multiplicity of methods that rely on education, but we can talk about two types of education, are they?
1 - Education   Spontaneous use Alinvdal Education spontaneous character subconsciously take this means the process of interaction between the child and the broad environment in which they live and which constitute the main favorable atmosphere for the child's pose and educationally.
2 - Education   Addressed: The acquisition made ​​in the educational pattern of the processes used by adults motherfuckin Urdu
Devoted to behavioral patterns in children, such as punishment and reward mechanisms are often Maaljo her parents to raise their children   Behavioral patterns and gain in the center of social, cultural, and this type of education that responds to the will of adults who are raising their children.

Educational structure of the act.. Distinction between the sectors of influence can not be a formal separation between the different aspects of personality

Educators and Almterbon is the most important elements in the process of education, It is also possible to look at the nature and direction of the effect of the Education, Vatjahat effect may vary depending on several areas if we talk about physical education, etc., but the pedagogy of modern psychology emphasize that this distinction between the sectors of influence is a formality and that he can not separate the different aspects of personality.

Inclusiveness in the concept of education.. All what we are doing for ourselves and other people are doing for us

Different definitions for different thinkers of Education and the importance of these differences, we find that most researchers want to give the existing character of the entire integrated breeding, and education is totalitarian is the relationship between man and nature and being. Has said (Stewart) in education what we are doing it all for ourselves and other people are doing for us.
In this context, we were able to identify some basic features of Lta GEF holistic education:
1 - totalitarian time: from the cradle to the grave, Education is do not stop at some point humans or entity is formed and re-posed by the constituencies of the time and place, a process covering the different stages of life in humans.
2 - totalitarian formative: Education is included aspects of personal psychology, socially, morally and spiritually and physically.
3 - totalitarian career: that education is characterized by exercise an important role in the comprehensive areas of human existence is the motherfuckin 'child is a citizen and human being.
4 - universality of influence: The breeding process stems from the structure surrounding the object motherfuckin Vallost what is involved in the factors and variables, and the facts and objects of nature and affect the structure of educational rights.
5 - universality of structure: Education is a process that involves various processes pedagogical education enters in the structure of the act of education and an attitude as well as in the case of socialization, Education is the entity includes education and beyond, and education is not training, training is may enter in the structure of the act and educational, but not enshrined.
6 - totalitarian humanism: Education process is characterized by humanity embodied in the manifestation of humanity since ancient times, it can not be any community that is composed of education.

From education to science education.. System discovered by human knowledge in the field of educational life

Science is the one who employs his tools in the detection of phenomena sons, and then analyze, interpret and predict, and science education system is discovered by human knowledge in the field of special educational Bnme life and be human cognitive and scientifically and educationally. He knew of Education Science seeks to know the breeding, analysis and monitoring of events and variables in an objective and scientific, in other words a breeding subject of science education, and emphasizes Durkheim style systematic birth of pedagogy which confirms his presence against the skeptics, saying: Because no one can to the issues of education that are the subject of, science, , it is easy to prove in this area, because the studies and research can take a scientific formula, if they meet the following characteristics:
1 - The address of these studies phenomena and observable facts before him.
2 - to be careless homogeneous phenomena among Allz j allows grouping into one category.
3 - The goal of science is the study of these phenomena in order to know objectively. 
Durkheim shows that science education "is the study of the emergence of educational systems and functions," Thus, Durkheim defines pedagogy as a science Allve This includes the following things:
1 - Date of pedagogical phenomena.
2 - History of the Creeds in their social context.
3 - Educational Sociology is the scientific study of the conditions of life education.

Between education and education.. Activity under which transfer information from one person to another

The word comprehensive education and adequate for everything. The word education is restricted to learn certain things have characterized the philosopher Kant between the teacher and the teacher first is the guide and the second is a teacher, and mean education activity under which transfer information from one person to another and takes the character of the activity, unlike education, the Education is characterized by comprehensive and complex nature It is a process of life includes a complex of various moments of interaction between man and the medium in which they live, and this sense can be said that education is a case in educational status.
 The educational situation is the specific education to be comprehensive and different, may be associated with the tools of education and in education-related goals Vtkon.

Contemporary Trends in the definition of education.. Human actions in directing the growth of an object about different ways

There are a lot of philosophers who put Alodaaan concepts of education and the most important objectives of education have:
1 - Some programming subjects.
2 - Make the school seeks to achieve the happiness of the student.
Morris has said that education Schleck modify the behavior of the individual, and the French thinker Fornel says that when man intervenes in the growth of human configuration it affects the composition Education is the act of human   In guiding the growth of an object about different ways may be used today if not confined to human life, has said the French scholar Olivier Rebol that education is the act that develops
Capacities of various human and processes that enable the child to access to culture.

John Dewey and pragmatism in the spirit of education.. Permanent organization, aimed to broaden the experience of the social content and deepen

Four-wheel governing propensity pragmatism in education a realistic and utilitarian, practical and physical, is the land of Gmatih the field of education resulting from the American society, and his character is learning that the work and purpose of education to work and adapt to social life, and knows Dewey Education "as a permanent organization of experience aimed to broaden the content of social and deepen "and, more generally known as a pragmatic change the entire education of the child.

Durkheim and the social trend of education.. Criticism of perceptions about the concept of education

The concept of education has is the impact of adults on children, and Durkheim's criticism of many traditional concept of education Allve focused on the side of the individual and as a "primarily a social thing," and known as "socialization practiced by previous generations to future generations"
The aim of Education in the development of all aspects of children on the path determined by the political community as both m and very briefly, the "education socialization process methodology for the new generation"
Explained why his take Educational month Kberhttjaoz submitted for this concept through the centuries, five years?
Because of the methodology and deep scientific analysis, which used it in his knowledge and addressing the issues of education and society.
Durkheim and his critique of the prevailing perceptions about the concept of education:
The philosophers and educators agree that the individual of great importance in education, says Durkheim, "The goal of education is the foremost growth optimization of the queens of the individual to the type of human, but this perception does not comply with the actual reality philosophy classics were ignored to look at human realistic in the time and place."

The concept of education when idealists.. Formulation of the human soul and printed on the right and goodness and beauty and achieve a better society

Education idealists when we find in nature   Of the humanitarian effort, which aims to overcome evil, and said Socrates in education "as the formulation of the human soul and printed on the right and goodness and beauty and achieve a better society," said Plato, "that education is to give body and soul all the beauty and perfection as possible," has said Abu Hamid al-Ghazali: " that the teacher who keeps planting Kalmzara Whenever saw a stone or a plant harmful to farming Castle put out and irrigated crops to grow to be better than others, and if I learned that the implant needs to be told that breeders should be the behavior of a guide and educator."
Education is the act can be children Allve of reaching the highest levels of growth and maturity are based on a check   What we must be the child in the future.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the natural tendency in education:
Is called one of the largest natural tendency was expressed by this trend, saying the famous "Let the children mature in children." He called for education of the negative   One that is allowing Atefl natural tendency to take off without the intervention of adults, which leads to distortion of the nature of the child and the destruction of the natural potential.
Education negative when Rousseau:
He wants the child with the results of his actions without the intervention of the human adult.
Kant's Education:
Say that man is make him the inevitable, which is subject to determinism, which force him to be a person subject to the nature and its laws. And education has is the development of the object of the perfection of what he can and that education is the formation and building of the Education is the body that make rights.
Bstalowczy definition:
  Education at Bstalowczy is the process of growth of all the forces of man and his abilities and the educator is also thought is not one who instills new powers in man, but mission is the removal of external forces motherfuckin stand the natural growth of the individual and these forces must be derived with the presence of internal forces.

The concept of education in the context of intellectual link pedagogical philosophy that dominates in a particular historical period

Be for education in this area are several definitions can not be identified, they vary depending on the different intellectual currents and for different frames of reference for intellectuals.
  Definition of Education in a systematic manner based on objective grounds, namely:
1 - educational philosophy that dominates in a particular historical period.
2 - the nature of the perception of human nature.
3 - Alajahat ruling political.
4 - current scientific developments which modify the nature of the perception of education.
5 - dimension of self-thinkers and visionaries.
6 - Alajdeuge Allve dimension represents beliefs in the projections Ye.
And we find that the total of all Wants to impose itself in the definition of the concept of education.

Linguistic concept of education in Arabic and Latin languages, French and English

Linguistic roots of the concept of education:
Go into the basis of linguistic concepts, not scientific, but a systematic attempt available and necessary to help the development of a term through the intersections of space and time, and what is certain is that linguistic investments vary over time and so a great importance to the use of the word as meaning in context.
The roots of the concept in Arabic:
When I said content we have obtained To the concept of education in contemporary language, this thing to Ayavina to return to the origin of this word   And compare it with the origins of language in foreign languages, however, there will be a very important issue is that
Does not have in the Arabic culture and language things separate or distinguish linguistically between education or art or science as a verb, and this is due to the absence of contemporary thinking in the field of education. 
This is because the owners of language the concept of education to several sources in Algh Arabic. The most important?
1 - the concept of education is derived from the past tense (on me) and keeps similarity means the fittest thing.
2 - derived from the past tense (usury) and similarity (more than) any other words grew and increased.
3 - derived verb (head) and similarity (Braille) means the fittest and the treatment.
4 - The sources referred to (me)   It means he grew up.
The roots of the concept in the Latin languages, French and English:
Education back to the Latin origin and drooping of Education to do the first sense. Most researchers agree on The origin of this word not two words Tinettan is the first act, which means feeding, while the second is the act   Extracted, such as a boat out of port. The known word EDUCATION    Prepare children mentally and emotionally and mentally.
Core meaning of the concept of Education at (petit Robert Robert )?
1 - the tools employed in the rehabilitation and development rights.
2 - Developing a methodology for the property or properties of special rights.
3 - knowledge and practice employer reliable members of the community in their lives.

المجوسية عند عرب الجاهلية.. ديانة قومية خاصة بالفرس انتشرت في تميم وعمان والبحرين وبعض القبائل العربية

المجوس يدينون بالنار، ويؤمنون بالهين يديران العالم، هما: إله الخير وإله الشر. ويقال: إن المجوسية كانت متفشية في تميم، وعمان، والبحرين، وبعض القبائل العربية. أما ابن قتيبة فنراه يحصرها في تميم، فيقول: "كانت المجوسية في تميم، ومنهم زرارة بن عُدْس التميمي، وحاجب بن زراة، وكان  تزوج ابنته ثم ندم، ومنهم الأقرع بن حابس، وأبو الأسود جد وكيع بن حسان التميمي ونقل صاعد الاندلسي رأي ابن قتيبة، ووصم تميماً بهذه الديانة.
أما الجاحظ فقد برّأ تميماً مما وصمت به، وتابعه في هذا فخر الدين قباوة. ونحن نتردد في الأخذ برأي ابن قتيبة لأسباب:
1- أن المجوسية ديانة  قومية خاصة بالفرس، ولم يهتموا بنشرها.
2- أن زواج حاجب من ابنته ليس من عادات العرب، ولا من مذاهبهم، وكانوا  يرون في هذا الزواج حرجا.
3- أن هذا الزواج مخالف للعرف الاجتماعي السائد عصرئذ، ولو حصل  لترك أثراً في نفوس التميميين، ومَنْ جاورهم من القبائل المعادية، كقبيلة بكر، ولوجودنا تعريضا به.
4- ماذا سيكون موقف أوس بن حجر من اعتناق بعض الدّارميين المجوسية بعد أن هجا البكريين أشد الناس عداوة لتميم، لشيوع المجوسية فيهم ، وكان قد قال:
والفارسية فيه غيرُ منكرة فبيه ضْيِزنٌ سَلِفُ
وهل سيصمت البكريون عن زواج كهذا؟
5- أن ختنوس ليست ابنة حاجب، وإنما هي ابنة أخيه لقيط، تزوجت من عمرو بن عدس، وتزوجت ثانية من عمير بن معبد بن زرارة، ورثته بعد موته.

ضعف تأثير النصرانية في عرب الجاهلية.. عدم ملاءمة طباع العرب الميالين إلى الثأر والانتقام وديانة دخيلة حملت طابع الغزاة

لم تستطع النصرانية أن تترك آثاراً واضحة  في حياة  العرب الجاهليين، لأسباب أهمها: 
1- أنها لا تلائم طباع العرب الميالين إلى الثأر والانتقام، وما من عربي يرضى أن يدير لضاربه خده الأيسر، إذا ضربه على خدّه الأيمن.
2- أنها ديانة دخيلة حملت طابع الغزاة.

النصرانية عند عرب الجاهلية.. الانتشار بين الغساسنة وعاملة وجذام وكلب وقضاعة وتغلب وإياد وبكر. مسيحية سطحية لا تخلو من الوثنية

انتشرت بين عرب الشام من الغساسنة، وغيرهم، مثل: عاملة، وجذام، وكلب، وقضاعة. وكانوا على مذهب اليعاقبة، ونفذت ايضاً إلى عرب العراق،  إلى تغلب، وإياد، وبكر. أما قلبُ الجزيرة فقلما تأثر بالنصرانية، لبعد مركزيها: نجران الذي كان معقلها، ويقع في جنوب الجزيرة، وبصرى يقع في بلاد الشام. لذلك لم تفش النصرانية في قبائل مضر، إلا ما كان من قوم منهم نزلوا الحيرة يسمون العباد، فانهم كانوا نصارى.
وقد حاول كثير من المستشرقين، ومَنْ تابعهم من النصارى العرب أن يثبتوا أن النصرانية كان لها كيان وصوت قويان في الجزيرة العربية، سواء في جنوبها أم شمالها. وراح لويس شيخو يدخل في النصرانية مَنْ ليس منها في شيء، "وكأنه زعم نصرانيا كل شاعر جاهلي، لم يوصف صريحاً باليهودية، وورد في شعره شيء مما يتقرب من اعتقاد وحدانية الله"، فقد عدّ امرأ القيس، والنابغة وطرفة، وسلامة بن جندل، وزهير بن أبي سلمى، والأسود بن يعفر، وأوس بن حجر، وعبيد بن الأبرص نصارى، لسقوط أسماء ومصطلحات نصرانية في أشعارهم، مثل الصليب، والناقوس، والفصح…
والحق أن ما تلمّسه لويس شيخو، وغيره، في شعر هؤلاء الشعراء، وغيرهم لا ينهض دليلاً على دين معين، وان ورود إشارات نصرانية في شعرهم، ليست إلا على سبيل التشبيه، والتصوير، واستمداد المعاني، وليست دليلاً على عقيدة دينية آمن بها هؤلاء الشعراء، لأن التعرف على دين من الأديان ليس معناه الاعتراف بذلك الدين واعتناقه. فما الدلالة الدينية مثلاً لقول الأعلم الهذلي الجاهلـي حين يشبه جلود الضباع بسواد ثياب الرهبان، فيقول:
سودٍ سحاليل كأن جلودهنّ ثيابُ راهبِ
ولم يكن للنصرانية سيطرة نفسية على أتباعها من العرب فكانت مسيحيتهم سطحية، لا تخلو من الوثنية، فلم يجد عدي بن زيد حرجاً أن يقسم  برب مكة الوثنية ورب الصليب:
سعى الأعداء  لا يألون شراً عليّ وربِّ مكّة والصليبِ

ضعف تأثير اليهودية في عرب الجاهلية.. عدم التبشير بها احتقار العرب لليهود باعتبارهم عملاء للفرس في اليمن ولتهافتهم على جمع المال ونقض العهود

على الرغم من اختلاط اليهود بالعرب، وتعايشهم معهم، وعلى الرغم  من تعربّهم بحكم مجاورتهم للعرب، واحتكاكهم بهم، فانهم لم ينجحوا في نشر اليهودية بين العرب، لأسباب:
1- عدم اهتمامهم بالتبشير بدينهم، اعتقاداً منهم بأنهم شعب الله المختار، وأنَّ سواهم من الشعوب غير جديرة بذلك.
2- احتقار العرب لهم باعتبارهم عملاءَ للفرس في اليمن، ولما عرفوا به من صفات ذميمة، كالتهافت على جمع المال، ونقض العهود، والغدر.
3- أن كثيراً من أحكامها شاق على العرب، وأنها لا تبيح الانتفاع بغنائم  الأعداء، بل توجب إحراقها. والعربي يقاتل ليثأر، ويغنم، وينتفع بالمال والأسرى.

اليهودية عند عرب الجاهلية.. ضعف تأثير اليهودية في الشعراء اليهود أنفسهم كالسموأل

قدم اليهود  إلى الجزيرة العربية بعد أن طردهم قياصرةُ الروم، فالتجأ كثير منهم إلى الحجاز واليمن. وقد استطاع اليهود في اليمن، منذ عصر متقدم أن يهوّدوا أحد ملوك التبابعة، وهو ذو نواس، ويحرضوه على التنكيل بنصارى نجران، وتحريقهم بالأخدود، وإلى هذه الحادثة أشارت الآية الكريمة {قتل أصحاب الأخدود النار ذات الوقود إذ هم عليها قعود وهم على ما يفعلون بالمؤمنين شهود  وما نقموا منهم إلاّ أنْ يؤمنوا بالله العزيز الحميد}. وسرعان ما استطاع الأحباش  النصارى القضاء على ذي نواس  سنة 525، وحينذاك كسرت شوكة اليهود في اليمن. ولم يبق لهم شأن يذكر هناك.
 وفي الحجاز نزلت قبائل كثيرة من اليهود ، أهمها بنو قريظة، وبنو النضير، وبنو قينقاع، واستوطنوا في يثرب، وخيبر، ووادي القرى، وتيماء.
وقد حاول المستشرقون اليهود أن يثبتوا أن اليهودية كان لها صوتٌ وكيانٌ قويان في الجزيرة العربية، والحق أنه لم يكن لهذه الديانة سيطرة نفسية على العرب، فليس بين أيدينا ما يدل على انهم خلفوا آثارا واضحة في الجاهليين، فقد ظل العرب الشماليون بعيدين عنهم، وعن دينهم، لا يتأثرون به في قليل أو كثير"، بل ظلّ تأثير اليهودية خافتاً في الشعراء اليهود أنفسهم، كالسموأل، فليس في شعره شيء يوهم المرء بأن صاحبه من اليهود، مما حدا ببعض الباحثين إلى الريبة في يهوديته.

شعر أمية بن أبي الصلت الديني.. لم يؤمن حسدا لأنه كان يطمع في النبوة ويرجو أن يكون هو النبي المبعوث

كان أُميّةُ قد نظر في الكتب وقرأها، ولبسَ المُسوحَ تعبّداً. وكان مّمن ذكر إبراهيمَ، وإسماعيلَ، والحنيفيةَ، وحرّم الخمر، وشكّ في الأوثان.. وطمع  في النبوّة، لأنه قرأ أنّ نبيّاً يُبْعثُ من العرب، وكان يرجو، أن يكون هو ذاك النبي  المنتظر، فلما بُعثَ النبيُّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - قيل له: هذا الذي كنت تستريث، وتقول فيه، فحسده، وقال: كنت أرجو أن أكونه. لهذا نرى أن أكثر ما وصل إلينا من حياته يتعلق بهذا الجانب. 
وفيه قال الأصمعي: ذهب أُميّةُ في شعره بعامة ذكر الآخرة. وتجمع المصادر على أنه مات كافراً، ولم يؤمن حسداً لأنه كان يطمع في النبوة، ويرجو  أن يكون هو النبي المبعوث. فأخذ يرشّحُ نفسه لهذه المكانة. ومما يؤكد أنه كاد  يسلم قول الرسول – صلى الله عليه وسلم- وكاد أُميّةُ  بن أبي الصلت أن يسلم، أو  فلقد كاد يسلم في شعره. 
 ومما يصور اتجاهه التوحيديَّ قولُهُ:
الحمدُ لله مُمْسانا ومُصَبَحنـا بالحمدِ  صبّحنـا  ربيّ ومسّانا
ربُّ الحنيفةِ لم تنفذْ  خزائنُها مملوءةً  طبّق  الآفـاق اشطانا
إلى أن يقول: 
يا ربّ لا تجعلنيّ كافراً أبداً      واجعل سريرةَ قلبي الدّهرإيمانا

شعر صرمة بن أبي أنس الديني.. الارتياب في عبادة الأصنام والاغتسال من الجنابة ووتجنب الحائض

ارتابَ صرمةُ في عبادة الأصنام، وكان قد ترهّب في الجاهلية، ولبس  المُسوح، وفارق الأوثانَ، واغتسل من الجنابة، وتجنّب الحائض، وكان يقول: أعبدُ ربَّ إبراهيمَ، حين فارق الأوثان، وكرهها، وكان قوّالاً للحق، معظّماً لله عزّ وجلّ  في الجاهلية. فلما بُعث  الرسول الكريم أسلم، وحسُنَ إسلامُه، وهو شيخ كبير. ومما يصوّر  اتّجاهه التوحيديَّ قولهُ:
يقـول أبـو قيس  وأصبح غـادياً ألا ما استطعتم  من وصاتي فافعلوا
فأوصيكــم  بالله  والبـرّ والتّقى      وأعراضِكـم  والبـرُّ بالـله  أوّلُ
وإنْ قومُكُم  سـادوا  فلا تحسدُنّهم     وإن كنتمُ أهل الرّياسـةِ  فاعدلـوا
وأنْ نزلتْ إحدى الدواهي  بقومكم فأنفسكم دونَ العشيــرة فاجعلـوا
وإنْ نابَ  غُرمٌ فـادحٌ فـارفقوهم       وما  حمّلوكم  في الملمّات  فاحملوا
وإنْ انتـمُ أمعَـرْتـمُ فتعفـّفـوا وإنْ         كان فضلُ الخير فيكمْ فأفضلوا
سبّحوا الله شرقَ  كلّ صباحِ طلعتْ شمسه وكلّ هلالِ
عالـم  السـرّ والبيانِ لديْنا       ليس ما قال ربُّنا بضلالِ
إلى أن يقول:
يا بنيّ الأرحـامَ لا تقطعوها     وَصلوها  قصيرةً  من طوالِ
واتّقوا الله في ضعاف اليتامى    ربمّا يُستحـل غيـُر الحلالِ
 واعْلَمـوا أن لليتيـم وَليّـاً  ثم      عالماً يهتـدي بغير السؤالِ
ثم مـالَ اليتيـم لا تأكلـوه           إنّ مـالَ اليتيم يرعاهُ والي

شعر زيد بن عمرو بن نفيل الديني.. التشكيك في عبادة الأصنام ومفارقة دين قومه واعتزال الأوثان، والميتة والدم والذبائح التي تذبح على الأوثان والنهي عن الوأد

شكّ زيدٌ  في عبادة الأصنام، وفارق  دين قومه، فاعتزل الأوثان، والميتة والدّم، والذبائح التي تذبح على الأوثان، ونهى عن الوأد، ومال إلى الحنيفية.
ولقي من زوجه وأهله أذى كبيراً.
مما يصوّر اتجاهه التوحيدي قولُهُ:
أربـّـاً  واحـداً أم الـفَ ربّ      أديــنُ إذا  تُقسـّمتِ الأمورُ
عزلتُ  اللاّتَ  والعزّى  جميعاً      كذلك يفعـلُ  الجلْد ُ  الصبورُ
فلا العــزّى أدين ولا  ابنتيها      ولا صنميْ بني عمـرو أزورُ
ولا هُبلاً أديــنُ وكـان  ربّا      لنا في  الدّهر  إذ  حلمي يسيرُ
ولكن أعبدُ  الرّحمـن ربــي      ليغفر ذنبي الـربُّ الغفــورُ

الحنيفية هي الدين القومي لعرب الجاهلية.. الموحدين كانوا ينتشرون في مكة والجزيرة والذين انطبعت فكرة عبادة الإله الواحد في تفكيرهم

إنّ دراسة الحالة التي وصل إليها المجتمع العربيّ قبل الإسلام تؤكد جملة من الحقائق التي تشير في مجملها إلى أن العرب كانوا على أبواب مرحلة ممهدة لتقبل الحدث العظيم، واستقبال الرسالة المحمديّة.
وكان هؤلاء الموحدون يشكلون قاعدة الانطلاق، التي أخذت على عاتقها مسؤولية الاستعداد لهذا الحدث. ويحدثنا ابن هشام عن طائفة من هؤلاء الموحدين الذين كانوا ينتشرون في مكة، وأنحاء أخرى من الجزيرة والذين انطبعت فكرة عبادة الإله الواحد في تفكيرهم، وهم يتدبرون ما خلق الله، فكانوا يسخرون من الأصنام وعبادتها، ويترفعون عن تقديسها.

الوثنية في أواخر العصر الجاهلي كانت أقرب إلى التوحيد.. إيمان أوس بن حجر ووالطفيل الغنوي وممدوح الأعشى وحاتم الطائي بقدرة الله تعالى

فأوس بن حجر، يؤمن بقدرة الله على إنزال المزنـة في غير وقت المطر، وبطاقة الربّ، ويشير إلى عصيان الآخرين له، وشعورهم بمرارة هذا العصيان وشعوره بحلاوة الطاعة. ويذكر اتقاءه لله، ووقاية الله لما يصادف الإنسان، وأن الله اكبر من كل الأصنام التي يعبدها الناس .
والطفيل الغنوي يؤمن بأن الله هو القوي القادر الذي يسد الثغرات، ويصلح ما فسد، وهو وحده القادر على سد الثلمات، وهو الذي يجزي على خير الأفعال.
وممدوح الأعشى لم يكن يبغي بما فعل، وبما أسدى من الخير إلا وجه الله يتقرب إليه بهذا العمل الصالح، والشاعر يدافع عن أعراض قومه ويضع في خدمتهم لسانا قاطعا،ً ولا يبغي بما فعل منهم جزاءً أو ثواباً، وإنما ثوابه فيما يفعل على الله. والله قادر أن يذيق خصوم ممدوحه بأسه وهو يفرج الكرب وهو الرحمن، ويدعو إلى تقوى الله، وليس كتقواه شيء ويجاهر بنبذ الشرك. ويؤمن سلامة بن جندل بقدرة الله على إفقار الأغنياء ، ولم الشعث ومشيئته في كل شيء، وان الله هو القادر على النصر، وتصريف الأمور، ويشير حاتم الطائي إلى علم الله بالأشياء ويؤمن بالبعث والحساب، فالله يحيى الخلق بعد موتهم، وان كانوا عظاماً ويذكر عروة بن الورد غفران الرب للذنوب ويذكر النابغة الذبياني وقاية الله، وحفظه، ويسأله البقاء وبإهدائه الغيوث  البواكر، ويستجير به، فهو الذي يزيد الخير، ويصلح ما يأمر به، ويجمع  الشمل ويثمر الأموال، وان العبد  يقدم النذور لله سبحانه وتعالى.
وأما القسم بالله فهو جانب آخر من جوانب المعتقد الديني، الذي ارتسمت  معالمه من خلال إيمان الشعراء، وهو قسم له أبعاده الدينية، لما يترتب عليه من مسائل، وله أبعاده الذاتية لما يستشعر به الإنسان، وهو يؤدي هذا القسم، وله أبعاده الحسية لما يفعله في نفوس الآخرين، ويتركه في وجدانهم.
فزهير يقسم بالله ويؤكد قسمه خمس مرات وامرؤ القيس يقسم أربع مرات ، واوس بن حجر  يقسم ثلاث مرات وطرفة يقسم بالله مرة واحدة.
ويأخذ القسم شكلاً آخر عند بعض الشعراء، لأنهم يقسمون مثلاً بالله العزيز كما أقسم حاتم الطائي، أو بالذي لا يعلم الغيب غيره، أو بالذي تساق له الهدايا أو المؤمن العاذات بالطير كما أقسم النابغة أو برب المسجد الحرام،  كما أقسم قيس بن الخطيم أما الأعشى فيقسم بالبيت الحرام الذي تهوي إليه الإبل  من كل صوب، وبما تساق إليه من قرابين ورب الساجدات في العشيات وبمن جعل الشهور علامة ومواقيت.
أن هذا الإيمان، وبهذا الشكل المطلق، يمنح القارئ صورة عريضة لما  كان يسود الناس من معتقد، ويداخلهم من إيمان، لان هذا التحديد الواضح للقسم والتوثيق المؤكد لقدرة الله سبحانه وتعالى يضيق دائرة الشرك، التي تطالعنا من خلال الأخبار التي وصلت إلينا. ولا بد أن يكون الناس الذين يشاركون هؤلاء الشعراء معتقدهم يسلمون به ويخضعون لما يخضعون إليه من المعتقدات، وانهم يمثلون طائفة كبيرة، ويشكلون قاعدة واسعة وإلاّ لما ساد دواوينهم مثل هذا القسم، حتى اصبحوا يستخدمونه في المواضع التي يجدون أنفسهم بحاجة إليه، ويعتقدون  بأنهم عاجزون عن إثبات قدرتهم على ما كانوا يريدون التعبير عنه. وقد وجدوا  في هذه الوسيلة طريقاً موصلاً، وسلماً يرتقون به إلى الحقيقة التي تفصل بين قضيتين ولعل بعض قصائد النابغة في هذا المجال خير دليل على صدق هذه المقولة.

انحلال الوثنية في الجاهلية.. هجاء عبيد بن الأبرص بني جديلة والإعابة عليهم اتخاذ اليعبوب صنما للعبادة

كان عبيد بن الأبرص يهجو بني جديلة، ويعيب عليهم اتخاذ "اليعبوب" صنماً للعبادة:
وتبدّلوا اليعبوب بعد إلههم صنماً فقروا يا جديل واعذبوا
ولا شك أن هذا كلّه يؤكد أن الوثنية الجاهلية كانت على وشك الانحلال.

الاستخفاف بالوثنية عند عرب الجاهلية.. اتخاذ بني حنيفة صنما من التمر وعبادته ثم أكله بعد حلول المجاعة

ليس ثمة شيء أدل على الاستخفاف بالوثنية من أن يأكل الناس الإله الذي صنعوه بأيديهم، ذلك أنّ بني حنيفة اتخذوا صنماً من الحيس (التمر)، فعبدوه دهراً طويلاً، ثم اصابتهم مجاعة، فأكلوه، فقال قائل:
أكلتْ حنيـفة ربّها زمـن التقحّم والمجاعة
لم يحذورا من ربّهم سـوء العواقب والنياعة
وقال قائل من تميم:
أكلت ربّها حنيفة من جو ع قديـم  ومـن اعواز

ثورة قبيلة مزينة على الصنم نهم.. تحطيمه بعد السماع بالإسلام

هذا صنم لمزينة اسمه نُهْم يثور عليه سادنه، حين يسمع بالإسلام فيحطمه، ويقول:
ذهبتُ إلى نُهـمْ لأذبـح عنـده عتَيرةَ نسك كالذي كنتُ أفعلُ
فقلتُ لنفسي حين راجعت عقلها أهذا الـه أبكـم ليـس يعقلُ
أبيْتُ فديني اليـوم ديـنُ محمد إلهُ السّماء الماجد المتفضـّلُ

امرؤ القيس وذو الخلصة.. الاستهانة بالأصنام والميل إلى رفض احترامها

هذه الحادثة تدل على استهانة امرئ القيس بالأصنام، وميله إلى رفض احترامها، فقد ذكرت المصادر أنه كان يجدّ بعد مقتل أبيه في طلب ثأره، واستعان بأحد اقيال حمير، الذي أعطاه جيشاً أكثره من صعاليك العرب  وذؤبانهم. فسار بهم نحو بني أسد، ومر في طريقه بذي الخلصة- وهو صنم كانت العرب تعظمه- فاستقسم عنده بأزلامه، وهي ثلاثة أقداح: الآمر، والناهي، والمتربص. فلما أجالها خرج الناهي، فأجالها ثانية فخرج الناهي، وكذلك في الثالثـة. فغضـب امرؤ القيس، فجمعها، وكسرها، وضرب بها وجه الصنم، ثم قال:
لوكنت ياذا الَخلَصِ الموتورا     مثلي وكان شيخك المقبورا     لم تَنْهَ عن قتل العُداة زورا
ثم غزا بني أسد، فظفر بهم، وكان أول مَنْ أهان صنماً.

الوثنية عند عرب الجاهلية.. الأصنام أسماء لرجال صالحين من قوم نوح وبعد هلاكهم صنعوا لهم تماثيل وعبدوهم

كان أكثر الجاهليين وثنيين، وكانت عبادة الأصنام منتشرة بينهم انتشاراً واسعاً، وقد أشار القرآن الكريم إلى بعض آلهتهم ورموزها من أصنامهم وأوثانهم ، فيقول سبحانه وتعالى:{أفرأيتم اللاتَ والعزّى ومناةَ الثالثةَ الأخرى} ويقول سبحانه وتعالى :{ولا تذرُنّ ودا ولا سُواعا ولا يغوثَ ويعوقَ ونَسْرا}.
وجاء في التفسير أن هذه الأصنام، إنّما كانت أسماء لرجال صالحين من قوم نوح، فلما هلكوا صنعوا لهم تماثيل، وعبدوهم ، ثم تووْرثت عبادتهم حتى انتهت إلى عرب الجاهلية.

الحياة الدينية عند عرب الجاهلية.. ملة إبراهيمَ. اليهودية. النصرانية. الصابئية المندائية. المجوسية. الوثنية

تناولت كتب كثيرة الأديان التي عاشت في بلاد العرب في عصر ما قبل الإسلام، بالحصر والتعريف، وأفاضت وأطنبت في الحديث، بحيث يعتقد الدارس انه ما من دين، أو ملة، أو عقيدة ظهرت منذ آدم -عليه السلام- إلا وتمثلت فوق أرض العرب.
ديانات حصرها القرآن الكريم: 
لا يوجد مصدر أصدق، أو أوثق من القرآن الكريم، الذي حصر هذه الدياناتِ في: ملة إبراهيمَ، والذين هادوا، والنصارى، والصابئين، والمجوس، والمشركين. ولدينا في الشعر العربي في ذلك العصر ما يشير إلى أن هذه العقائد المختلفة كانت تراود خواطر الشعراء، وتمثل قسطاً من تفكيرهم الديني، بحظوظ متفاوتة لكل عقيدة.

عاطفة الشاعر عبد الكريم الكرمي في قصيدة المشرد.. الصدق في تصوير النكبة وأثرها على حياة الفلسطيني

 اتسمت العاطفة بالصدق في تصوير النكبة وأثرها على حياة الفلسطيني وخاصة أنه عاش هذه التجربة، وشاهد عن قرب آثارها المدمرة على المستويات الاقتصادية والاجتماعية والسياسية، كما اكتوى الشاعر بنار التشرد الذي أصاب شعبه.

تحليل المقطع الثالث من قصيدة المشرد لعبد الكريم الكرمي.. رؤية الشاعر للواقع والمستقبل حيث الأمل والتفاؤل هما أساس الحياة والبقاء

يعكس هذا المقطع رؤية الشاعر للواقع والمستقبل، حيث يرى أن الأمل والتفاؤل هما أساس الحياة والبقاء، وأن الوطن لن يضيع طالما ظل خالدا في نفوسنا وقلوبنا نحميه بأجسادنا ونفديه بأرواحنا.
1- وفق الشاعر في استخدام الكلمات القوية المعبرة التي تزرع الأمل في النفوس مثل: " كفكف الدمع، وهل يجدي البكا سر، الأمل الضّاحك، الأنجم، ما ضاع منا وطن.
2- وفق في تنوع الأساليب بين الخبرية والإنشائية بما يتوافق مع الناحية الشعورية.
3- استخدام الصور الخيالية الجميلة في قوله: "ننثر الأنجم" والكناية في قوله: "للحرية الحمراء" والمحسنات البديعية كالطباق بين ضاع و خالد.

شرح وتحليل البيت الثالث عشر من قصيدة المشرد لعبد الكريم الكرمي.. يا أخي ما ضاع منا وطن خالد نحمله في كل قلب

يا أخي ما ضاع منّا وَطنٌ *** خالِدٌ نحملْهُ في كلِّ قلبِ
شرح البيت:
 يخاطب الشاعر أخاه محاولا أن يبث الأمل في نفسه قائلا له: بأن الوطن الذي يحمله الأبناء في قلوبهم  لا يمكن أن يضيع مهما ابتعدوا عنه وشردوا في سبيله.
التصوير الفني:
* استخدم الشاعر الطباق بين : ضاع وخالد.

شرح وتحليل البيت الثاني عشر من قصيدة المشرد لعبد الكريم الكرمي.. ننثر الأنجم في موكبه موكب الحرية الحمراء يصبي

نَنْثرُ الأنْجمَ في مَوكِبهِ *** مَوكبِ الحرِّيةِ الحمراءِ يُصبي
معاني الكلمات:
 يصبي: يميل إلى الجهل والفتوة.
شرح البيت:
 يعبر الشاعر عن التضحيات العظيمة التي يقدمها الشعب الفلسطيني فداء للوطن، وأن دماء الشهداء والجرحى هي التي تضيء له سبيل الحرية والاستقلال.
التصوير الفني:
 ننثر الأنجم: استعارة تصريحية: حيث شبه الشهداء الذين يضيئون طريق الحرية بدمائهم بصورة الأنجم التي تضيء الطريق، وحذف المشبه " الشهداء" وصرح بالمشبه به، وهذه الصورة توحي بكثرة الشهداء وعلو منزلتهم.
* الحرية الحمراء: كناية عن كثرة التضحيات، وتوحي بأهمية التضحية في نيل الحرية.

شرح وتحليل البيت الحادي عشر من قصيدة المشرد لعبد الكريم الكرمي.. كفكف الدمع وسر في أفق حافل بالأمل الضاحك رحب

كَفْكِفِ الدَّمعَ وسِرْ في أُفقٍ *** حافلٍ بالأملِ الضَّاحكِ رَحْبِ
معاني الكلمات:
- كفكف الدمع: مسحه مرة بعد أخرى
- رحب: واسع ، بعيد
شرح البيت: 
يخاطب الشاعر الإنسان الباكي على ضياع فلسطين قائلا: لأبد من أن تمسح دموعك، وأن تندفع نحو الحياة المفعمة بالأمل والتفاؤل، لأن الأمل والتفاؤل هما أساس الحياة.
التصوير الفني:
* استخدم الشاعر أسلوب الأمر:" كفكف الدمع، وسر" الذي يفيد النصح والإرشاد.
* حافل: نعت مجرور وعلامة جره الكسرة.
* التصوير الفني: حافل بالأمل الضاحك: صور الأمل بصورة إنسان ضاحك فحذف المشبه به، وأبقى شيئا من لوازمه "ضاحك" على سبيل الاستعارة المكنية.
* وسر: نوع الواو هي واو العطف التي تفيد الجمع والمشاركة.

شرح وتحليل البيت العاشر من قصيدة المشرد لعبد الكريم الكرمي.. أيها الباكي وهل يجدي البكا بعدما أصبحت في كل مهب

أيها الباكي وَهَلْ يُجدي البُكا *** بعدما أصْبحتَ في كلِّ مَهبِّ
معاني الكلمات:
- يجدي: ينفع
- كل مهب: كل اتجاه وناحية
شرح البيت:
 يخاطب الشاعر منْ يبكي على ضياع فلسطين بسؤال إنكاري قائلا بأن البكاء لا ينفع لمن أصبح وحيدا معذبا في أرجاء المعمورة.
التصوير الفني:
 * استخدم الشاعر أسلوب النداء بقوله:" أيها الباكي" الذي يفيد التحسر والآسي.
 * استخدم الشاعر أسلوب الاستفهام بقوله:" وَهَلْ يُجدي البُكا" يفيد النفي.    
 * مهب : اسم مكان "أي مكان هبوب الرياح".

شرح وتحليل البيت التاسع من قصيدة المشرد لعبد الكريم الكرمي.. وأرى السمراء تلهو بالهوى تهب النور لعيني كل صب

وَأرى السمراءَ تَلْهو بالهوى *** تَهَبُ النّورَ لِعيْنَيْ كُلِّ صَبِّ
معاني الكلمات: 
- تهب: تعطي، تمنح
- صبِّ: العاشق، المشتاق
- السمراء: رمز لفلسطين
شرح البيت:
يتمنى الشاعر أن يرى "السمراء" فلسطين تنعم بحب أهلها وتلهو بالحب والحرية، وتمنح النور لعيون المشتاقين لها من أبنائها الذين شردوا عنها مجبرين.
التصوير الفني: 
صور فلسطين بصورة الفتاة السمراء فحذف المشبه " فلسطين" وصرح بالمشبه به "السمراء" على سبيل الاستعارة التصريحية.

شرح وتحليل البيت السابع من قصيدة المشرد لعبد الكريم الكرمي.. يا فلسطين وكيف الملتقى هل أرى بعد النوى أقدس ترب؟

يا فِلَسطينُ وكيف المُلتقى *** هلْ أرى بَعْدَ النَّوى أقدسَ تُرْبِ؟
معاني الكلمات:
النَّوى: البعد
شرح البيت:
يناجي الشاعر فلسطين معبرا عن حنينه وشوقه لترابها وربوعها متمنيا أن يرى ترابها المقدس بعد أن أبتعد عنها.
التصوير الفني:
* استخدم أسلوب النداء: "يا فلسطين" وهو أسلوب إنشائي، الذي يفيد التحسر.
* استخدم الشاعر أسلوب الاستفهام: "وكيف الملتقي"  الذي يفيد التمني.
* استخدم الشاعر الطباق في قوله: " الملتقى، والنوى" للدلالة على التمني بالعودة إلى فلسطين.
* فلسطين: منادى مبني على الضم في محل نصب.
* الملتقى: مصدر ميمي
* أقدس : اسم تفضيل.

شرح وتحليل البيت السادس من قصيدة المشرد لعبد الكريم الكرمي.. هم ضحايا الظلم هل تعرفهم إنهم أهلي على الدهر وصحبي

هُمْ ضحايا الظُّلمِ هَلْ تَعْرِفُهمْ *** إنهمْ أهلي - على الدَّهر- وَصَحبي
شرح البيت:
كل هذه الفئات من أبناء الشعب الفلسطيني " العذارى، والأيتام، والشيوخ" هم ضحايا ظلم الاحتلال، ويسأل أخاه الفلسطيني الشريك معه في الحزن والتشرد ، هل تعرفهم ، ثم يقرر غنهم أهلي وصحبي طوال الدهر.
التصوير الفني:
* استخدم الأسلوب الخبري: "هُمْ ضحايا الظُّلمِ" دلالة على الحزن والأسى والتحسر.
* استخدم أسلوب الاستفهام "هل تعرفهم" للتقرير والتأكيد.

شرح وتحليل البيت الخامس من قصيدة المشرد لعبد الكريم الكرمي.. وشيوخ حملوا أعوامهم مثقلات بشظايا كل خطب

وشيوخٍ حَملوا أعوامهمْ *** مُثْقَلاتٍ  بِشظايا كُلِّ خَطْبِ
معاني الكلمات:
*  مثقلات: مليئة بالهموم
* شظايا:جمع شظية وهي الفلقة من العصا وغيرها
* خطب: الأمر الشديد
شرح البيت:
 يتابع الشاعر لذكر فئات الشعب الفلسطيني التي تعاني من ظلم التشرد والحزن والانكسار فالشيوخ حملوا أعوامهم
 المثقلة بالحزن والأسى دلالة على الظلم الذي يواجهونه من ظلم الاحتلال.
التصوير الفني:
 حَملوا أعوامهمْ : استعارة مكنية، شبه الأعوام بشيء ثقيل يُحْمَل، فحذف المشبه به" الشيء الثقيل" وأبقى شيئا من لوازمه "يحمل" على سبيل الاستعارة المكنية.    
* مُثْقَلاتٍ بِشظايا كُلِّ خَطْبِ: صور الخطوب"المصائب الشديدة" بصورة الشظايا التي تنقسم إلى أجزاء.
* استخدم الأسلوب الخبري: " وشيوخٍ حَملوا أعوامهمْ"، وهنا تهوي العَذارى " دلالة على الحزن والأسى والتحسر.
* نوع الواو في قوله:"وشيوخ" واو رُبَّ وهي حرف جر شبه زائد
*شيوخ: اسم مجرور  لفظا مرفوع محلا على انه مبتدأ.
* محل الجملة الفعلية" حملوا" في محل رفع خبر للمبتدأ
* مثقلات: حال منصوب وعلامة نصبه تنوين الكسر بدل الفتح لأنه جمع مؤنث سالم.
* بشظايا: حرف الجر الباء يفيد الإلصاق.  

شرح وتحليل البيت الرابع من قصيدة المشرد لعبد الكريم الكرمي.. فهنا الأيتام في أدمعهم وهنا تهوي العذارى مثل شهب

فَهنا الأيتامُ في أَدْمُعهمْ *** وهنا تهوي العَذارى مِثْلَ شُهْبِ
معاني الكلمات:
* تهوي: تسقط
* شهب: النجوم الساطعة التي تتهاوى من السماء.
شرح البيت:
يعبر الشاعر عن فئات الشعب الفلسطيني التي عانت التشرد والحزن والانكسار، فاليتامى يبكون لما حلّ بهم من
 موتٍ وتشرد، والفتيات العذارى هتكت أعراضهن فسقطت كالنجوم الساطعة التي تتهاوى من السماء، دلالة على الضياع.
التصوير الفني:
وهنا تهوي العَذارى مِثْلَ شُهْبِ: شبه الفتيات العذارى وقد هتكت أعراضها ، بالنجوم الساطعة التي تتهاوى من السماء، وهي توحي بالضياع والإذلال.
* استخدم الأسلوب الخبري: "فَهنا الأيتامُ، وهنا تهوي العَذارى " دلالة على الحزن والأسى والتحسر.
* تهوى: فعل مضارع مرفوع وعلامة رفعه الضمة المقدرة منع من ظهورها الثقل.
* العذارى: فاعل مرفوع وعلامة رفعه الضمة المقدرة منع من ظهورها التعذر.

شرح وتحليل البيت الثالث من قصيدة المشرد لعبد الكريم الكرمي.. سر معي في طرق العمر وقل أين من يحمي الحمى أو من يلبي؟

سرْ معي في طُرق العُمْرِ وقلْ *** أينَ من يحمي الحِمى أو منْ يُلبّي؟
معاني الكلمات:
الحمى: ما يُحمى ويدافع عنه.
شرح البيت:
يخاطب الشاعر أخاه الفلسطيني طالبا منه أن يسير مع أبناء الشعب الفلسطيني متوحدين متماسكين للدفاع عن وطنهم السليب، ويستبعد الشاعر متحسرا  من خلال الاستفهام أن يكون هناك نصيرا يحمى الأوطان ويلبي نداء أهلها.
التصوير الفني:
* استخدم الشاعر أسلوب الأمر: "سرْ معي في طُرق العُمْرِ وقلْ"  يفيد الالتماس.
* استخدم أسلوب الاستفهام:" أينَ من يحمي الحِمى" يفيد الاستبعاد.
* استخدم الجناس الناقص في قوله:" يحمى، الحمى" للدلالة على التحسر لعدم وجود نصير للشعب الفلسطيني لاغناء الموسيقا الداخلية، وإثارة انتباه السامع.
* من: اسم موصول بمعنى الذي
* يحمي: فعل مضارع مرفوع وعلامة رفعه الضمة المقدرة منع من ظهورها الثقل.
* الحمى: مفعول به منصوب وعلامة نصبه الفتحة المقدرة منع من ظهورها التعذر.

شرح وتحليل البيت الأول من قصيدة المشرد لعبد الكريم الكرمي.. يا أخي أنت معي في كل درب فاحمل الجرح وسر جنبا لجنب

يا أخي أنتَ معي في كلِّ دربٍ *** فاحملْ الجرحَ وسِرْ جنباً لجنبِ
شرح البيت:
يدعو الشاعر أخاه الفلسطيني للسير متحدين يشد بعضهم بعضا  في درب النضال، وتحمل المصاب والخطوب التي حلت بأبناء الشعب الفلسطيني.
الصورة الفنية: 
* فاحملْ الجرحَ: صور النكبة بصورة الجرح النازف وصور الجرح بصورة ثقل يُحْل ، دلالة على شدة ما ألم بالفلسطنين.
لماذا افتتح الشاعر قصيدة بأسلوب النداء " ا أخي"؟ أو ما المعنى الذي خرج إليه النداء بقوله: "يا أخي".
افتتح الشاعر قصيدة بأسلوب النداء "يا أخي" ليعبر عن التحسر والأسى الذي أصاب الشعب الفلسطيني.
ما المعنى البلاغي الذي خرج إليه الأمر في قول الشاعر: "فاحملْ"؟
المعنى البلاغي الذي خرج إليه الأمر في قول الشاعر: "فاحملْ" الالتماس.
* استخدم الشاعر التصريع في مطلع القصيدة: "درب- جنب"
* استخدم الشاعر الأسلوب الخبري:" أنتَ معي في كلِّ دربٍ " ليعكس حالة الانكسار والأسى والاتحاد بين الفلسطينيين.

أفكار قصيدة المشرد للشاعر عبد الكريم الكرمي وتقسيمها إلى وحدات

- الفكرة الأولى : تلاحم الشعب الفلسطيني في تحمل المصائب والخطوب
الأبيات من "1-6".
- الفكرة الثانية: مناجاة فلسطين والتعبير عن الشوق والحنين إلى ربوعه.
" الأبيات من 7-9"
- الفكرة الثالثة: زرع الأمل في نفوس الشعب الفلسطيني.
"الأبيات من 10-13"

دراسة عنوان قصيدة المشرد لعبد الكريم الكرمي.. هجرة الفلسطنين من وطنهم كانت قسرا وبفعل قوة خارجية وليس حبا في الرحيل والابتعاد عن الوطن

 هل وفق الشاعر في اختيار عنوان قصيدته: "المُشرَّد" ولماذا؟
الشاعر في اختيار عنوان قصيدته: "المُشرَّد" بسبب:
1- أنه يعكس المضمون الذي تعبر عنه القصيدة والهدف الذي يسعه إليه.
2- كلمة "  المُشرَّد" توحي بالحالة الإنسانية المأساوية التي يعيشها الإنسان الفلسطيني من ناحية.
3- ومن ناحية أخرى كلمة " المُشرَّد" اسم مفعول مشتق من الفعل المتعدي " شرّد" اختارها الشاعر دون غيرها كالشارد أو التشريد ليبيِّن لنا أن هجرة الفلسطنين من وطنهم كانت قسراً، وبفعل قوة خارجية وليس حبا في الرحيل والابتعاد عن الوطن.

مناسبة قصيدة المشرد.. التعبير عن النكبة واحتلال اليهود لفلسطين وتشريد أهلها في المنافي والملاجئ

يعبر الشاعر عبد الكريم الكرمي/ أبو سلمى في قصيدة المُشرَّد عن النكبة التي وقعت عام 1948، حيث أحتل اليهود فلسطين وأقاموا على ترابها دولتهم، وشرّدوا الشعب الفلسطيني في المنافي والدول المجاورة، بعد أن عذَّبوه وقتّلوه وسلبوا أرضه ومنازله ومقدساته، وقد صوّر الشاعر هذه المعاني أصدق تصوير، وفي الحادي عشر من تشرين الأول عام 1980 مات الشاعر ودفن في دمشق.

شرح وتحليل القصيدة الرثائية للسيدة منتهى القريش لشقيقها - أنا لن أكابر

جسد يزف إلى المقابر
جسد يزف الى الثرى
من ثم يتبعه جسد
أترى عشقتم ذا الرحيل
أترى الفراق أبدا يطول
أم أن بي شوقا إليك يهزني
فيجود ذا الدمع الغزير على المحاجر
(هنا الشاعرة تبدأ قصيدتها بااستفهمات تثير الأسئلة في نفس المتلقي وتخاطب فيها كل من يقرأ نصها وهذا يدل على الحزن الشديد تقول هل عشقتم الرحيل أما أنا الشوق والحزن فيني زائد والدمع فيني غزير لأخي الذي فقدته وهذا من عمق جمال مطلعها والذي يثير الحزن الشديد في النفوس
وقد ذكرت بعض الصور البيانية في مطلعها قد شبهت جسد الميت بالعروس التي تزف إلى عريسها وهنا نلاحظ التناقض العجيب الذي يثير الدهشة في النفوس
وغيرها من الصور البيانية التي اضفت الجمال على مطلع قصيدتها
جسد = دلالة الموت
الرحيل = دلالة الفقد
المحاجر = دلالة الحزن الشديد)
أأخيا لو أن الزمان بنا يعود
لو أن في الموت فداءاً أفتديك
لكنه الله الذي ..
يختار من منا يموت
ويشاء من يبقى ومن منا يُسافر
الله يا طيف الحبيب
لو أنني أجد المجيب
لصرخت باسمك لو تعود
(هنا كانت ترجو لو الزمن يعود ويرجع اليها أخيها الذي فقدته ولكن الله سبحانه وتعالى اختاره فمزجت بين الحزن والرضا بما قدر الله وأنه سبحانه هو المدبر لذلك يفعل مايشاء سبحانه فكانت كلماتها مؤثرة في النفس
الزمان = دلالة على الحنين
الموت = دلالة على الحزن الشديد)
أرسلت صوتي عاليا لك في المقابر
أنا لن أكابر... أنا لن أكابر
الموت من سنن الحياة
وخطى المهاجر للمهاجر
ألذا اعتراض؟ تالله لا
لكنها الحسرات تملأ خاطري
فلقد رحلت بلا وداع
وكتبت فوق الدرب أسماء الضياع
فهنا في البيت من يبكيك من عمق الندم
وهناك من ينعاك أو ينعى القيم
وهناك من يشكو وفي الشكوى عدم
وأنا هنا.. من لوعتي بك أستجير
وبحثت عنك فلم أرك
ما زلت أصرخ يا حكيم
هل مت؟ أم يا ترى يوما تعود؟
أم أن من يزف الى الثرى
يبقى هناك أبدا بعيد
نلتاع نشتاق إليه
نبكي نموت من الندم
لكنه أبدا مسافر لا يعود
طيفا نراه تضمه حسراتنا
ودموعنا تمضي إليه تبثه أشواقنا
لكنه يبقى خيال
يبقى اللقاء حلما يذوب .. شيئا محال
ودموعنا تبقى... لتحفر خندقا فوق المحاجر
( الشاعرة تنهي قصيدتها بأن لقاء أخيها سيظل حلما وشئ مستحيل وسيقى الحزن على مدى الأيام وذكرى أخيها لن تنساها وستبقى الدموع ويبقى أثرها فوق المحاجر
فقد شبهت الدموع بالأنسان الذي يحفر خندق في الأرض
قصيدة مؤثرة جدا أبدعت الشاعرة في صياغتها تحتوي على معان كثيرة وكلماتها بسيطه واضحة).

منتهى محمد أحمد القريش.. سوالف شوق ديوان باللهجة العامية. المركز الثاني في مسابقة الرئاسة العامة لرعاية الشباب بالدمام

ولدت الشاعرة منتهى محمد أحمد القريش عام 1380 هـ / 1960 م في مدينة صفوى في المنطقة الشرقية، تعمل موظفة بشركة أرامكو السعودية.
توجهت إلى عالم الشعر والكتابة وهي الأم لأربع بنات: صبا، زينب، خاتون، رغد، والشاعرة الرقيقة والمحبة للكلمة الصادقة تأثرت بوالدها الذي وجهها لقراءة الشعر والكتب الأدبية وشجعها على تنمية موهبتها فكتبت القصة القصيرة والخاطرة والقصيدة
ونشرت غالبية انتاجها في جريدة اليوم.
صدر لها ديوان باللهجة العامية ولمن يقرأها هي حروف ملونة بأرق تلاوين الحب والبراءة والشوق (سوالف شوق، 69 صفحة، دون تاريخ).
تعتبر الشاعرة منتهى القريش من الشاعرات النادرات اللواتي ينظمن الشعر العربي بالفصحى و العامية. وهي تعد حاليا لإصدار مجموعتها الشعرية الثانية بالفصحى .
شاركت في عدة مسابقات من بينها مسابقة الرئاسة العامة لرعاية الشباب -الشؤون الثقافية- الدمام وحازت على المركز الثاني (شعر) عام 1414.
عام 1417 شاركت أيضا في مسابقة القصة القصيرة وحازت على المركز الخامس.
عام 1414 أقيمت في نادي الصفا الرياضي مسابقة أدبية وحازت منتهى على المركز الأول (شعر).
كتب عنها الأستاذ عبدالله بن أحمد الشباط في مجلة المنهل، كما كتب عنها الكاتب سعود عبدالكريم الفرج في كتابه (شعراء مبدعون من الجزيرة والخليج) وأفرد لشاعرتنا بعض الصفحات..
كتبت قصيدة كمقدمة مغناة لمسلسل (مُر السنين) انتاج كويتي وعرض في معظم المحطات الفضائية
كما ظهرت كضيفة في بعض اللقاءات الحوارية التيلفزيونية .. صنفت كشاعرة في معجم البابطين للشعراء العرب المعاصرين, المجلد الرابع، صفحة 636 – 837 ، الذي طبع في الكويت على نفقة الأستاذ عبد العزيز البابطين.
أقيمت للشاعرة منتهى عدة أمسيات على مستوى المنطقة الشرقيه وكانت أمسيات ناجحة بشهادة الجمهور.

The concept of education.. Behavior followed by the person to understand the presence of as abstract

Definition of Education:
Behavior is followed by the person, and may represent concepts of the origin of human knowledge and concepts in the tools realize exist as abstract, if extremely human knowledge accessible to the science it will not Isttih to reach than the target to having up to the concepts and have a high degree of accuracy.
Concept Education between simplicity and complexity:
Tangier's concept of education of the most spread and use of concepts in cultural life and is characterized by a high degree of clarity in spite of Diversity of use, and education is in the public culture is an effort of parents in the education and care of their children's physical and psychological care. 
Comes along with the clarity of word of Education a high degree of uncertainty and difficulty of the concept of scientific Valtozivat   Education in the center is different from medicine. Iatha General because scientific knowledge depends on the accuracy in determining the concepts.
In this framework, we find that there are several problems facing the concept of education and are illustrated in:
1 - Multiple investments are used to the concept of
2 - This concept overlaps with a number of neighboring concepts, especially the concept of education and pedagogy.
3 - the multiplicity of definitions multiple historical periods.
4 - overlapping meanings of this concept is the impact of the process of translation from another language.

Human process of pedagogic.. The role of education in the achievement of cultural communication

The human is the object Neighborhood, which is distinct from the only other ability to adapt according to cultural norms, and culture is the invention of the human That characterized from other organisms in order to preserve culture That meet the communication between the generations Abralthoil cultural So that the breeding role in achieving cultural communication has been provided with animals and insects with neurological help to cope without the training and education, the human is quite different for a program does not have any biological and genetic assisted by the presence However, it is considered Odf objects and the least amount at birth.
 He needs to   Educational program to help him   The registration of all motor possibilities The stepping stone and adaptation, and in the stages of human leaders to be most in need Factors, training and learning to acquire the skills to help him adapt. Has been found in human history, many of the stories and the ways in which indicates the strength of education in human form on what it is now of the properties. 
Scientists have wondered in the ancient times to the language   And its impact in the formation of rights.

Educational theories spirituality.. Learner is not the center of the educational process and the values ​​of the educational objectives of the educational ideas and philosophies and religions

TP educational theories of spirituality, does not consider the learner as the center of the educational process but as part of the universe grows and develops through relationships that allowed the educational work with the universe. The values ​​advocated by the spiritual power to achieve through educational work, are defined as learning goals in the ideas and philosophies and religions brought about by the "great men like Jesus and Mohammed (PBUH) ... ". And others of the prophets. And thus become the educational aim in the light of these theories, LLC of the nature and sentimental than it is in nature knowledge; because it focuses on providing individual spiritual values, through the use of its energy underground and through meditation and self-absorbed in thinking Milli. As for theories of individualism, despite being the center of each learner make the learning process,
Concerned, it focuses mainly on self-concept and the concept of freedom and independence, and is released from the perception of educational Lh j on the importance of freedom of the learner and the desire to learn.And if the educational goals - In light of the current educational - we call T the wishes of the learner andinitiatives; The role of the teacher is to facilitate and simplify e-learning to assist the learner to internalize the changes desired by the educational goal, but also help him access to education itself freely.    
To be fair, it must be said that the educational aim has attracted much attention by the theories of technological and social theories of knowledge, but may be more a matter of equity, to say a technological N theories also called systemic theories,   Focused attention on the need to identify the educational objectives and Ogerotha and learning conditions, means, and neglected the focus of the social theories of knowledge,and in the interest of social and cultural conditions and their role in determining educational goals and learning occur.

Technological features of theories in the study of the objectives of education

1. Critique of romantic and humanitarian perspective of education which does not care much planning and organization, through "for his opposition to conservatives who refuse to put their trust in technology, technological fad Aah direction, they see that the goals of education do not Can be traced in any way the principles of universal or absolute values, not to be found not in a Platonic world, there is no Relationship to the objectives of education Almitafsiqih or philosophical considerations, because the latter did not help at all on the progress of education. It is possible for new technology that contribute effectively in achieving this progress."
2. Resort to use of the following concepts in heritage education: (operations (Processus) Engineering,education, communication, composition, technology and media, information, multimedia, programming, system,education Mfirdn.....)
3. Great interest in planning and organizing of training, Concern and the training and education than with education, that is His will to organize the various stages of training as far as possible from the organization (setting goals, tasks, calendar ... etc), description, and careful regulation of the operations of the configuration.
As for the educational goals, we agree that the "purposeful teaching has arisen in the context of technological Aladuati subtraction, as part of the value of efficiency and rationalization that becomes the only measure for evaluating educational technology and cost-effectiveness, which must ultimately serve the needs of the community." Effectiveness and cost of preparing the principles underlying the current pedagogy goals. The collection of knowledge and skills is considered the real goal of learning as theories and J. Technological Educational. However, the planning and organization is what ensures the achievement of educational objectives, and in this area, says Elliott. And. Isner (EWEisner) In his book "educational fiction" Imagination » «EducationalPublished in 1985 "Is no longer the nature of the goals is one of the concerns of educational technology, but what concerns us today is to organize and identify the means to achieve these goals."
In addition to that, these theories emphasize the importance of the elements of communication and feedback in a communication of knowledge, as essential and necessary in the process of teaching / learning.This, coupled with the importance that should be given to   Use of communication technologies (audio - visual:video, CD discs, computer ....) in the act of education, it also stresses the need to specify the desired future behaviors observed Tha of learners.
It is clear that the problem is that he wanted the supporters of this trend is resolved as follows: How Nagere  And organize educational processes even become effective? Can be concluded from this perspective that these theories address the relationship between theory and application, which is applicable in all areas of people and subjects, and confirms the proponents of these theories that the technology can generally solve the problem of applied, but worse Moreover, we find that there is a general method and one for its educational improvement is the use of technology. And identifies the followers of Technology Education Engineering pedagogical steps are as follows: initially interested in Professor:
- To organize the educational process, he tries at first to recognize the educational objectives and arranged according to different Alsnavat force.
-   After you know the objectives sought to be achieved, that defines the elements necessary (Eg, groups, texts, documents, audio - visual, computer .....) from the goals that had already explained very clearly.
-   Collects data on the characteristics of students (the features of learning, knowledge, incentives ...).
-   The change in accordance with the objectives and educational status and updates.
-   Studying educational tools in his possession and constraints to be taken into account.
-   Identify the mechanisms that allow him to evaluate learning outcomes, and investment information that will enable them process   Calendar; to change the system of coordinated if necessary.
Thus, the professor has built a procedural system for education and learning. And this construction depends highly on the organization of educational methods and to set goals, and if the organization of great importance in the educational process which seeks to effectively and   Improving education, achieving goals depends on how much control the organization of educational methods and the Ogerotha.
Reflects the use of the concept Alogeroh by theorists technology, the extent of their interest in not only the means of teaching aids, but also educational goals. The IPA (Opératonalisation) Educational methods is oneof the basic steps in the theories of educational technology, It indicates here that the need to "move from the level of perception to the level of achievement and therefore should provide teaching methods and tools that enable teachers of the selection procedural and their educational goals." Out of the concept of Alogeroh, emphasizes technological theories:
1 - building a procedural system for teaching and learning. Any planning education to make all elements of an effective target for cost and benefit to the individual and society.
2 - Prepare the mechanisms that allow the assessment of learning outcomes, ie, preparing assessment tools(tests, assignments, questions, Roaúz ... . Etc.) and terms of conduct and standards mastery and success.
3 - Investment information for the calendar to change the education system, which made ​​assessment tools perform the functions summarized as termed formative calendar.
4 - change the behavior of the student, as defined in the goal of educational standards.
5 - Description of work to be done by the student, make any achievements that will be required conditions of the classroom.
6 - Provide an accurate description of the media to help achieve the desired goals.
In summary, for the theories of technology, is that it calls for education planning and organization, which derives its basis from the general theory of formats, but in terms of educational objectives should describe the achievement required of the learner, and provide an accurate description for the media assistance that can be used to achieve the desired goal.
  The Skinner (Skinner) One of the key contributors to the emergence of technological theories of breedinga "insists on the need for goals to be fully defined in advance, And that those goals specific procedural or behavioral, before taking the teaching course. "For example, and when designing a unit for teaching the subjects of geography, should be what Q does his students a clear and specific. When designing a unit for teaching historical event, must be clear and specific what you must do in order to reflect the learner to achieve this goal. And Fathi Mustafa Al-Zayat confirmed during exposure to the theory of Skinner (Skinner) "If you did not specify a procedural or behavioral goals, the teacher does not find a way to see if he has already achieved some of these goals or not." The selection of the desired objective motion must be actually in the J c behavior and clear, capable of observation and measurement, and to determine the objective standards of achievement and conditions.

Objectives of education in light of technological theories from the perspective of Larock and Stolovic and Jack Abwant

- The definition of Larock and Stolovic (1983. Stolovitch & La Roque :
"Put educational technology to study how environmental regulation pedagogical and how to create the means and methods of educational and how to structure knowledge, in short, put technology education decide which model is the practice of education, as provided by this form of strategies, so that the learner to absorb new knowledge, as much as possible effectively."
B - definition of Jack Abwant   (1990. J. Lapointe: "Technology Education Kmqarbh lies in the application of scientific knowledge and rational data processing by the left lobe of the brain,
Intuitive and the data processed by the right-alfalfa, and its goal is to develop the modalities (methodologies, techniques, machines) are capable of solving problems related to teaching and learning practices and training. The technology from this perspective, a tool to interfere with rational Intuition that guides The world during his research, also directs the development and application of realistic and acceptable solutions to the problems encountered in practical working in the field of science education. " 
We can see in these definitions the idea that proponents of theories of technological education stress the need to organize educational processes, by identifying ways and means and the organization of knowledge and practice of teaching methods and strategies. We can also say, TP Technology Education came to solve the problems that have long put forward methods of education and training, technology is in these two areas, is a tool to assist in solving application problems experienced by teachers and constituent and learners alike.

Educational goal in light of theories of educational technology

Among the flags of these theories mention names such as: John Carroll (1984.J.Carroll) , And Robert Major(1969.R.Mager) And Benjamin. Q. Bloom (1956.BSBloom) And to the world. P. Skinner BFSkinner). (1954. Andothers, which can not field to remind them all.
Technological theories start from the problem of Education addressed the issue of organizing the educationact, without neglecting any of its elements, whether a rule or educational purpose or educational calendar or learner or teacher, or other elements contained in educational status.
I have tried to theories of technological education to apply the theory of patterns in the field of education, a theory built by the biologist Ludwig von Bertalhoenfe (Ludvig Von Bertalanffy)   And dissemination of year   1968in the writer   "The General Theory of formats" «Génèral system Theory».
Indicate this theory "approach to deal with the phenomena and data as a system interacting dynamic, including interconnected elements and relationships with the ocean" Fbaat b R act educational phenomenon of life, wemust adopt about it a comprehensive overview, and must be analyzed as a form of life in terms of its parts, Theanalysis of certain isolated from each other, can not provide a comprehensive explanation of the phenomenon of teaching and learning.

Social cognitive approach to learning through the form

To achieve the educational goal according to this approach, the traffic the following phases:
A View. Models of behavior on the students: in the presentation of his theories of social learning, says Saleh Mohammed Ali Abu Gado: "A lot of learning happens by observing the behavior of others and observe the results of their actions, and according to this theory, we do not learn acts only simple, but we learn models of the Faculty of behavior, that is what we learn not only the models of behavior, but rules that are the basis of behavior "(16). Based on this argument, we can conclude that the learner yen tend to The adoption of behaviors some people who regard them as models Pandora and Margaret Gradler Bandura) And ( 1992 M .Gredler Hence, teachers must create models of behavior to teach and present to students, If the goal of a lesson is to teach responsibility, it would be useful to interpret, but add to the explanations provided on this topic, you must bring someone to the section of society considers responsible doctor (for example), and exciting interactions with the students to influence them. And if he wanted a teacher to teach students how to record information, Instead of standing at the borders to give recommendations about the process that must be followed to achieve this, it can be carried out in front of them what is required for the acquisition of how to record the information, and provides the teacher in front of them living examples of that and attached to his work that provide suspension and clear about the processes being implemented, it is this way   Become a model that could be imitated. This is clear from the approach that will increase the educational goal established in the hearts of students, if they were given real life examples they can contact them. Providing realistic models of behavior, J helped to achieve the goals that will not just be recipes ask learners to absorb it. 
B. Evaluate and justify the value of behaviors: "Sees Pandora   That people develop their assumptions about the types of behavior that will lead them towards the desired educational goal "(17). In the sense that achieving the goal depends on the value that we give the result. Should, therefore, to show the learners the benefit of each learning objective Understand - according to this approach, learn better If you have identified the usefulness of this educational goal or the other for life, or if you show them what Segnouna of particular interest to learn for learning later. Here is unclear   The bulk of my face, pragmatic approach to learning in the Pandora.What matters is the value of the results expected by the learners of the objectives to be achieved, P and clarity of objectives depends - according to this model - over the interest of clarity and to achieve.
C. Promoting behaviors the student: "It is very important to feed the feedback positive for each student is making progress in learning, because they allow him to configure a positive image of the same, and recognized KMAT able to do the tasks required, but it is possible to resort to punishment to reduce to do certain behaviors"(18). Here we find Pandora   Gradler with his basic concepts are used in a pedagogy of targets and in the theory of programmed instruction set, which was founded by Skinner (Skinner) ; Nutrition is positive or negative feedback helps both to change the behavior specified in the educational goal or strengthened.
D. Practice, "recommends Pandora combination of theory and application, because the combination between them incredibly much to learn self-j - motor private. Actually it is very difficult to learn the game of golf without practice, it is also difficult to n learn to write without the exercise, base-which write a good line to know that they have reached through the practice and then practice and practice ... "(19). To clarify the relationship of theory and practice in the field of education, we offer the following educational strategy proposed by Gredler)(1992. To achieve educational goals. This strategy consists of a set of stages are:
Phase I /   Analysis of behaviors to be achieved:
- Determine the nature of behavior: cognitive Ojaddana Oouhrki.
- Determine the phases of behavior section.
- Identify the critical points in the section; such as difficulties with behavior Note determine which sections where the probability of the emergence of large errors.
Phase II / description of behavior and selection of cost-effectiveness model of behavior you want to uphold
- The definition of student behavior or economical success of the oil pipeline if the implementation of pain-Rad learned behavior, for example: It is important to ask students to write a good line if Function that will require editing in the future many reports.
- Search for a model of behavior that help to achieve success, and often these models represented in the peer or the teacher or in some models of behavior   Social superior.
- Determine whether it should be a real or symbolic form, for example: call a writer or a doctor to interview students.
- Determine the types of reinforcements necessary for the desired behavior and annexation of the model.
Phase III / share educational preparation:
- Identify methods language (messages, instructions, indicators, explanations that    Describes what to do and what not to do).
- Re-sectional stages that require a longer time to interpret, and create explanations that must be added to facilitate learning.
Phase IV / educational implementation of the quota:
When it comes to learning the skills to do the student mobility:
- It shall be presented by an expert, any submission by the model to be emulated.
- Must be given the opportunity to allow students to practice their skill set.
- Must feed is used. R. a beer to be visible and audible.
When it comes to learning the behavior of knowledge, you must:
- Submit the form supported by oral terms.
- Provide an opportunity for students to submit brief expressions of typical behavior, when   It comes to learning the concepts or the concept of the rule of rules.
- Provide opportunities for pupils to express, especially when it comes to solving the problem or the application of a particular strategy.
- Provide opportunities for dissemination of behavior that has been learned and transferred to other positions.
Is clear from previous phases, will find that the educational aim to achieve in bond operations provided by Applied teacher at the stake. Here, we can say that the practice and modeling play a key role in the approachPandora (Bandura) , And this is confirmed by Fathi Mustafa Al-Zayat when exposed to educational applications in the social cognitive learning theory by saying (for the teacher): "When the goal is to give students some patterns of behavior based on interactive dialogue, Ktqmus some historical figures or fictional, u K L characters that you want to model the behavior of some students, while providing the correct form for each pattern of behavior from you "(20).
This observation leads us to say that learning Dalla be for the learner, the greater was founded on the use of models for the proper functioning, and also a founding sample to the wrong performance together at the same time. We have reported Fathi Mustafa Al-Zayat range of applications to Walt Alimah cognitive social learning theory emphasizing the examples on the concept of modeling, and is provided in the form of guidance, include the following:
- "Dish or Nmzj skills and activities provided without talking or without a template for a syllable: (a) presentedwith the activity that you want to impart to students not accompanied by any verbal expressions, and then fragmented activity with the modern All part of giving feedback to student responses or comments or correctsuch error immediately.
- Explain all procedures and steps of modeling with the provision of materials are available for the acquisition of learned behavior to be as you expect.
- Always occur for information to be retrieved or that can be called on   Light and through the solution of scientific problems at hand, giving the appropriate reinforcement on each tradition or simulation models as well as the opportunity to practice based on self-reinforcing.
- Nmzj behavior you want to impart to students in similar circumstances to the circumstances that lead the student skill required.
- Explain models of behavioral patterns produced by the students and the expectations associated with wanot revolted by the consequences. We can conclude from the above on the social cognitive learning theory to social cognitive theories characterized by the following:
A. Incorporation of the concept of cultural and social environment as delimiters effective in achieving educational goals.
B.  Focus on the application of modeling as a method of achieving these goals.
C.  C. Use of the concepts related to the fields goals Kalmjal cognitive domain and affective domain and psychomotor.