Alarm penalty can only be called after the data on the matter on the alleged violation

Administrative Court Oujda
Rule number 2000/259
* The authority has the right of the label that has the right to discipline.
* Defect is a lack of jurisdiction of the General and the Court raised automatically if not adhered to by the appellant.
* Can not manage to sign the death the right of the alarm only after
the employee Astdla were made ​​by the person concerned about the offense charged under Chapter 66 of the Public Service Act.
* On 31/10/2000
Abdelkader Khchin against the regional deputy of the Ministry of National Education laparoscopic
* On behalf of His Majesty the King
* On 31/10/2000, the Court issued Administrative Oujda is composed of the following:
LLC. Mohammed exclusively: Chairman and Rapporteur;
LLC. Abdul Razzaq al-Tawfiq: member;
LLC. Abdul Rahim Bergala: member;
The presence LLC. Omar Sadiq: a royal commissioner;
With the help of Ms. Khadija Timeout: writer settings.
Sentence reads as follows:
Between: the Khchin Abdel Kader, a professor of the second cycle, Nador.
Vice President: Mr. Hassouni pots, a lawyer Authority and Jeddah.
As claiming on the one hand
And between:
Director of Secondary Ibn Battuta, Nador;
Mr. Deputy Regional Ministry of National Education, laparoscopic;
The Minister of National Education in Rabat;
Mr. Prime Minister, in Rabat.
As defendants, on the other
[...]
After deliberation, according to the law:
Reasoning
It aims to appeal to the abolition of the administrative decision issued by the Regional Deputy of the Ministry of National Education laparoscopic alert the judge lowered the death the right of the appellant in the cause of a defect and not inquiring about the reasons for absenteeism.
In the figure: it satisfies all the conditions of the appeal form must also be made ​​against the law and must be within the legal term, according to the form and character of a law which required him to be an acceptable form.
In essence
About the legality of the contested decision:
Where he is scheduled accordingly and spend the defect of jurisdiction in its destruction whether subject matter jurisdiction or jurisdiction spatial or temporal scale is regarded as the only aspect of cancellation of public order, which owns the court raise automatically as the cause of abolition, even if not adhered to by the appellant because of its grabbing jurisdiction and violation of legal rules that determine the competent authority in the direct legal work.
Since Chapter 65 of the General Regulations of the Public Service Authority, which has the right of the label that has the right to discipline.
As taken from the legal drafting of the above mentioned article, it is not permissible to take disciplinary penalty provided for in Article 66 of the Public Service Act only by the Minister of National Education as the authority of the label or the person authorized to him according to law, and that every breach of this requirement status makes all the disciplinary decision abuse unblemished defect lack of jurisdiction and is doomed to cancellation.
As taken from the contested decision that the Attorney-Regional Ministry of National Education, inflicted disciplinary punishment against the appellant in the form of the alert added to the Public administrative precedent disciplinary is in this legal work is not considered disciplinary authority of the appellant as has been said and is not mandated in that statutory mandate, which decision shall be flawed grabbing competence leading to the abolition of the administrative decision being appealed and the order of the legal effects on the removal of its effects especially since the terms of reference of MP as defined in chapter I and II of the decision of the Minister of National Education No. 99/1192 issued on 5 August 1999 and the laws governing the terms of reference do not allow him to take such administrative decision contested the neutral to the requirements of Article 65 of the Public Service Act above, the Court raises on its own jurisdiction grabbing a defect in the contested administrative decision and eliminate its cancellation.
Since it is on the other hand if the defect is because Almnay on the legality of the administrative decision being appealed, Eliminating administrative framework to shed control over administrative decisions on the occasion of the appeal which has the right to verify the authenticity of the facts of the administrative decision being appealed and their legal, and then Fjhh management respondent when Bngab explained its decision to the appellant for work despite the lack of competence in taking shall be bound to prove the cause of absenteeism, which was not evidenced after Bmqpol reluctance to answer is which decision shall be in addition to this fraught defect lack of reasoning which has to be canceled.
As well as that Chapter 66 of the Basic Law-General of the Public Service that is alert and alert decision reasoned issued by the authority which has the right to discipline without consulting the Disciplinary Board after Astdla data on the matter is this call a basic guarantee for the employee to replace the guarantees conferred upon him in the framework of the Council disciplinary view of the nature of the disciplinary punishment light resulting from such absence of the alleged Therefore, administration must guide the inquiry in writing to the employee in order to make all the data, explanations and documents justifying violations of culpability before she goes ahead to the rhythm of the death alert in his right, and that meant that he could not manage to sign the death alert in the right only after the offending employee Astdlaúh the statements and clarifications about the abuse against him under penalty argue that the legality of such resolution of the breach of the right to defend him parallel to the guarantee of the Disciplinary Board.
As a management respondent after the reluctance to answer did not show the benefit of direct inquiries of the appellant for his absence, which has been non-existent did not include in its decision direct inquiry in question and thus remain above procedure as a substantial result for violation of invalidity is fixed pursuant to the application of Article 366 of the Code of Civil Procedure and Article 66 of the above remain in the contested decision as well as being flawed defect reason for lack of jurisdiction and does not fulfill the essential procedures required by law and all this will lead to the government to rescind it.
Operative
For these reasons
The administrative court which requires a public elementary or her presence:
In the form: accepting the challenge.
In essence: the decision to cancel the administrative control of the regional deputy of the Ministry of National Education of 13/03/2000 Judge punishing alert against the appellant, including the consequent legal implications.
The power automatically to all parties.
This Judgement in the day, month and year above.
The disciplinary board to explain his opinion to be issued instead confined to generalities, without a search does not determine the date of the quarter follow-up.

The function of the hair, the contents of the purposes of poetry, rhythm / music, poetry, poetic image

And function of hair
A - ethical educational reform for young people in particular and hair re-glow and quality to him, so Governance and attend the preaching and guidance in this letter
B - to express the concerns of individual self and the human emotion and conviction of corruption of the world civilization or society and escape from his evil and problems
C - Compliance issues, community and humanitarian and social criticism and
political corruption, and others to reform and change to
Better 
D - in addition to breaking the tower structure seeking to form a poetic vision of exploratory and outlook for the future of peace and tolerance
Content or content
A - 1 uses the contents of capillary circulation in the old hair: Kalmdh and pity and pride and spinning ...
2 ethical implications of social and political up-to-age Ahaarotrtbt sometimes occasions such as Eid religious and national
B - to take the self and nature a major focus of the Haran through meditation philosophical and existential of man in relation to itself or the universe, and express the position of the poet of life and death and annihilation and eternal optimism and pessimism and Aljerachar. Oherob to the jungle icon serenity and spontaneity and instinct and the rule of the values ​​of good only
C - proceed from the reality of life in the local, Arab or humanitarian and the Declaration of refusal and Alhadharafassd Altadmr of problems such as poverty, underdevelopment and injustice Algahrwalastbdad ..
May take the poet's personal experiences Tobeiran position than before as he did Sayab and al-Bayati, Abdul Muti Hijazi and others
D - the same content but the hair breaking inter-viewed from the angle of the dream and the desire to explore the reality of self and the universe, values, and look to the future by focusing on the dimension of drama and human misery to experience imaginary withdraw all the peoples of the world
Dictionary / Language
A - Therati often Maiday no stranger to the language, a force (richness), and difficulty speaking, understanding. Priori fields related to the purposes of poetry addressed: Field field spinning pride ..
The relationship between the fields
Relationship conflict and disharmony in the poem a private multi-purpose
B - a trader in most cases, is simple and easy for staying away from the complexity of verbal with the breach and exceeded Vsahhoe Allghan intentionally Marafahibha, meaning first. Carrying a dictionary connotations Aihaúahoa self, especially suggestive nature. Fields dominant linked particularly, conscience and polychlorinated Ddah such despair \ hope. Good \ evil . civilization \ nature. optimistic \ pessimistic ...
C - a trader often Mlfozath eloquent and Ahaanamn everyday language. Says Salah Abdel-Sabour: (hair Acamos him.) Characterized as easy as abstaining to carry signs suggestive deep. Fields dominant related to the tragedy and suffering of a collective alienation \ loss. Death \ life. Despair and hope .. and Alajtmaihwalssayash and other issues
D - the same properties listed for breaking hair structure with the addition of a field of symbols and myths when was the dominant .
Rhythm / music, poetry
A - Commitment offers Khalili: The unit of weight, rhythm and Ruwi. Tbara familiar. Re-Sadr on the deficit. Need the approval of the pause pause Results Aerodah and this is what characterizes the unity of the text home, and need only seen the first house to house to complete the second sense, a defect in the rhyme is called embedding
B - a combination of maintaining order rhythmic traditional uniform and the revolution by systems on the lines of varying length and diversification of rhymes and characters from Ruwi and the adoption of the structure aroused sometimes. Will also attend the rhythm of procedure types (parallel and repetition) to enhance the pace outside. Music is poetry in the Hair emotional corner basis for the indispensable
C / d - the revolution offers Khalili and systems on the unit Alaikaihalosas any Altfielahibaaradha in lines Charihmtfawthataiwl and exploitation of blank text Valchukl engineering holds, in turn, significant enhanced to indicate overall text and the adoption of the sections and diversification in rhymes and characters from Ruwi and the merging of the seas of poetry. And ensure Alymlaema rhythm of the splash emotional. And wholesale poetry may withdraw
On more than one line in order to achieve unity of membership. Together with instances of breaking structure rhythmic This course interested in the poet rhythm of procedure (repetition and parallelism to put the vision and the vision of poetry in the hearing and to deepen Aldalalhotosea ability Altejealah. This does not mean that the old hair and bio care about this rhythm. But is Kmhassanat Bdieih
Poetic image
A - components: science statement Kalchbah metaphor and allegory and metaphor sender
Its terms of reference: the memory of poetry any Closed photos discussed in the old hair Ki_bah strong lion and the beautiful Baghazal. The relationship between the picture elements sensitive approach in analogy any clarity the similarities, and the appropriate metaphor between the alias of it and nickname him so that Ananaj Elyjhd intellectual or hopes to be aware of. Function is the basis illustration, description and a partial cosmetic mostly in line with the unity of the house that do not allow images and installed along the
B - beside the flag of the statement, we find inspiration as we have through the language codes, or legendary, as did Ali Mahmoud Taha. Elements of images of self and nature through the modeling and diagnosis. Not care to approach and appropriate and thus function of image Aihaúahoa suggest the significance of multiple Ankad agree around and suggest the meaning is subject to the same and desires and culture and vice versa report and this means when barth refer to the nature of language (. not seem to phrase, no matter how Almanyalve express it behind Mlfoza. say something simple, something literally and initial Hakiqiecon everything that comes after the literature ) S / z p. 15-16. Image combining micro and macro .
C / d - components aware of the statement, Taatmzar with qualified Balenzaah Semantic through Alasnadoa create Mnefrat tag combining elements of disparate, in fact easily tuned through Almzauajjat ​​the following: actual: P + FA: smiled roses. Nominal: Beginner + news: the atmosphere is bleak. Added + Added to: Idalziman. + name act: sadness sat on the road, said Salah Abdel-Sabour. Alandziahat These are in fact metaphors diagnostic machine tool. The function of mental images to suggest complacency of the poet acting as human. Alsourmrkph and college in addition to displacement often find semantic : 
1 Alsmor different types: language. Religious. Historical. Literary ...
2 - legends return them as is or modified or created. And psychological function and the formation of suggestive Tejealah
Revelation (Balta tide does not) make an unprecedented significance Mnfelh which characterizes hair mystery
Which is desirable in modern poetry can achieve what he called Bart pleasure of the text provided that the result of Hloshgar understood even by the poet himself, but for BC delete the art and skill in manipulating Palmlfozat and depth of thinking and employment of human knowledge. Here, the recipient forced Alyalaratqa to the level of the poet not to wait for coming. As if Ahaarerdd what Abu Tammam those who accused him of mystery: not to Do you know what is being said?. Vnzul poet means the death of his hair because he would be in terms of one clear and the immortality of the hair is the multiplicity of its indications and its ability to fascinate .
Methods of systems
Simulate a 1 / tradition and re-organized masterpieces of pre-Islamic poetry and Abbasid and Andalusian .. 
2 maintain the traditional language of the poem constants and weight and image
3 opposition poems model systems on the same rhyme, rhythm and Ruwi
B - the revolution for the purposes of poetry and a strange language and illustrations and Almnfsalhan Altejrebhalmatah. Assimilation of the world presented a perspective from the perspective of self is based on emotion, conscience and imagination
C - to deepen the revolution on the traditional fundamentals of the poem and the constant search for new forms of expression. And the use of experimentation and not to rely on the employment of a particular model of human knowledge and the narrative method and form of the ordinary language praevia
D - the same way hair breaking structure . There makes Alrmswalostorh arbiter between hair structure and hair breaking vision. And there is focus on the dream to distinguish between them. When was the experience is Macolholahi linked to the perceived reality they experience vision
As is the case generally felt Adonis .
Note: I had prepared this comparison in the table but I could not move, Marmzat to each letter with a letter. C / d means that the characteristics in common. Can be for those who wanted to paint it Jdolayda Akhabat Ofiqiaujsaúsa vertically .
1 - hair structure and hair breaking vision is what means the hair or hair free verse poems
2 - did not devote the check for the level of deliberative Vosalipe similar in all the discourses of poetry, if we exclude the self-speaking, which are individual in the letter I and II and in terms of plus (us) in the speeches of others, we find all Alharaiestamlon sentences grammar: nominal and actual and rhetorical: news reporting and Alanchaiahibdalaltaha craft and Alastelzamah and methods such as that and exile and annihilating Algosrkikadim Altajeralsrd and so on. The difference is the intentions of the speaker of this method Omak and the disclosure of such intentions is the core of the analysis. So Students should avoid the way of descriptive text Atmanh excellence such as the use and there is a metaphor and there is a metaphor and there is a method Khepri ....
I hope that I have been successful in bringing the picture of modern Arabic poetry so as to match the level of second year baccalaureate specialization of Arts & Humanities.

Methods of pilgrims Mchirat pronunciation and organization.. The level of discourse and logical deductive skills

Methods of pilgrims Mchirat pronunciation Mchirat organization
References: Rehab in Arabic. The second year of the baccalaureate - Course of Arts and Humanities.
Targeted skills: Communication: the ability to recruit components of knowledge and language in the communicative context.
Methodology: Using cultural knowledge in Deita reception and production.
Cultural: the ability to load drawn from an intellectual phenomenon studied.
Lesson Steps:
Boot: an assessment of the concept of harmony, principles and processes of harmony.
Examples of departure:
"It was a heritage for many modernists Arabs a thing of the affairs of the past, the past that we have to do with the epistemological break, is not this is the most prominent conditions of Western modernity? This and we put our rhetoric to the" mirrors concave "smaller in size. And played down the achievements of the Arab mind, What I do in the current study is an attempt to do justice to Arabic rhetoric and the Arab mind, I wanted them to exchange the mirrors concave mirrors normal, is not convex swelling of the volume of the rhetoric and its achievements. It is not concave belittled and smaller size, mirrors reflect the true magnitude of the achievements of the mind Arab and Arab rhetoric, and in that, but I do not see the issue I'm trying to prove ...
And provide a convincing alternative is in fact provided our cultural, as the Arab culture of the lack of validity of the claim, repeated by another, and see which we turned the consumption of Western modernity imported in the eighties, to the production of modern Arab of our own in the nineties of the twentieth century, I have already modernists and developed a specific challenge to the Arabs, "those of you Fleihdd modern Arab Ontgtamoha?!".
What am I doing here also call to "march that was interrupted," is to try to bridge the gap, and an end to the culture divide ...".
LLC. Abdel Aziz Hammouda: concave mirrors. Towards a theory of Arab cash. World Series of knowledge Kuwait August 2001 Page 13
- Note the examples:
Read the text shows that the writer has the position of the heritage, to defend him to respond to the modernists who deliberately excluded as part of the heritage of the past, as he does not support the inflated heritage than it's worth, considering his position and objectively fair compromise
Through this presentation author argues two positions proposed position Third, and this is known as speech-orbital because it introduced a thesis (the position of modernist anti-heritage) and the antithesis of the thesis (the position of holy heritage) and then came to installation, which demands the development of the heritage in its real size without unfairness or bias.
Noting how to build the writer to the theme, we find that begged a set of Mchirat pronunciation Kaldmaúr that define the parties to the pilgrims (the writer of the conscience of the speaker: I do, I wanted to, I do not see, I try, I already, I do) and (the Modernists through the conscience of the addressee and the absent: Many of the modernists Arabs, one of you .. Fleihdd, which Ontgtamoha).
There is also a question mark (not this is the most prominent conditions of Western modernity?), And command (Fleihdd any one of those modern Arabic) and analogy (mirrors concave) and explanation (since the Arab culture of the lack of validity of the claim, repeated by some) and the interpretation and use of the dictionary indicative of the position (out , reducing, rift, / equity, a convincing alternative, bridging the gap ..)
And for the defense and the achievement of persuasion adopted by Mchirat regulatory logical start Bastdalal mind through inference, who judged by the position of the modernist heritage, and induction by tracking the status of heritage between the modernists and euromaximalist Heritage and the accompanying explanation and interpretation of the martyrdom of the status of modern Arabic, compared to modernity, the Arabs between the two times ...
Abstract:
Pilgrims Language: source argued any disputed the argument, and idiomatically activity is persuasive and constructive, in the form of speech employed techniques for the linguistic and organizational seek to influence the recipient to earn his support, and there were many areas the use of pilgrims between the speeches and debates, and judicial proceedings, articles, Vtaddt so the methods and procedures employed in persuasion, including:
1 Mchirat pronunciation: represented by the grammatical and lexical elements, including "the pronouns and the condition and the assertion and denial, interpretation, and being aware metaphor and allegory, Tobacco and construction methods that are responsive to the peculiarities of orbital operation.
2 Mchirat regulation: and regarding the level of discourse and logical deductive skills Kaltdrj in the presentation of the debate according to the method of deductive and inductive analysis and comparison with the reasoning and martyrdom.

Acts of speech.. Giber did say in the context of communicative language familiar to

Targeted skills:
Communication: the ability to recruit components of knowledge and language in the communicative context.
Methodology: Using cultural knowledge in Deita reception and production.
Cultural: the ability to load drawn from an intellectual phenomenon studied.
Lesson Steps:
Boot: a general assessment of the components of the global model and the relationship that combines them.
Example of departure:
Came in the play "Find a man with eyes only" by Almiskina Sub:
"Hulagu: I want this land skinned walls and domes, Mentofah feathers, I love their rivers dyed with blood, and rose ... O Tatar soldiers destroyed their offices .. Ansfoa towers, forts ... mourns the chessboard and the Caliph Caliphate .. (hear the sounds of destruction and Alastagath. . Hulagu header appears only as he watched the battle ..)
Nice imagination: (step forward to diagnose and Minister of Hulagu and eyebrow ... strikes ... authorize the copper disk to enter the large traders and officer Arabic) We are at your service, O Moulay.
Hulagu: Who is this fellow strugglers in the next-dressed?
Nice imagination: it is large traders ... Came to give you the key to the city first.
Hulagu: What is the name of the open city?
Nice imagination: Palestine. "
- Note the example:
Dialogue in the section Theatre consists of a camel; news: "I want this land skinned walls and domes," I love their rivers rose dyed with blood, "the chessboard mourns the Caliphate and the Caliph," "We are at your service", "He's the chief traders", "(is) Palestine" . They all bear the truth and lying.
As we also find sentences construction: call "O Tatar soldiers destroyed their offices," and it "Ansfoa towers, forts," and the question "Who is this in the coming struggling dressed?" And "What is the name the city open?".
And noting some of the sentences involving news reporting found something I did reply to him the recipient as well as love Your word is to respond to what you want to act Black The context supports the dialogue when he said "destroyed ...".
Criterion which applies to sentences is the probability of news reporting the truth or lying in the information, and the standard by which the construction is happening on the camel is the success or failure in influencing the addressee Philippians call and answer the question and is subject to the order or rejects it.
Valjml news reporting and construction are all designed to accomplish the actions and achieve the purposes envisaged by the speaker from his words, whether news or an order or forbid or appeal. These acts may be achieved or not achieved on the offeree .
When uttered by speakers at the section of the Apostle was uttered by my words he did say (words Giber it), and this act verbal intended achievement as (what he wants the speaker from his words) is called the act Altkelma and act Altkelma addressed to the addressee (affected negatively or positively) and the impact of the so-called act Altclema. There is said and done and meant to say the impact caused by speech and achievement in the offeree. This is known as speech acts (verbal and talk and Tclema)
Abstract:
Common sentences in news reporting and construction as the words and deeds, and all the words already includes verbal Anjazia achieves the purpose of speaking, whether his testimony in the news or the command or prohibition or question ....
Every act of speech acts performed through three interrelated:
Verbal act: an act to say Giber in the context of communicative language customary.
Altkelma act: the act Olanjaza played by the speaker when he spoke during The purpose of the pronunciation (News, order, prohibition ..)
Altclema act: the impact of a talk or utter in the offeree would have believed the news or deny, or refuse to respond ..

Global model: a system of relations among the factors.. Relationship communication, desire, conflict

Targeted skills:
Communication: the ability to recruit components of knowledge and language in the communicative context.
Methodology: Using cultural knowledge in Deita reception and production.
Cultural: the ability to load drawn from an intellectual phenomenon studied.
Lesson Steps:
Boot: a general assessment of the components of the global model.
Example of departure:
Claimed that the land of the territory of elephants Ojzpt, say, discharged, striking elephants extreme thirst, the King sent His Messenger, and astronauts in the request for water. So he went back to some of the apostles, and told him I had found the place as well as our consciousness is said to have appointed the moon. Please proceed to the king of elephants that eye to his drinking is his villa, and the eye in the land of rabbits, rabbits in Fotin Ogeharhn, Vohlkn them a lot. Vtkdmt bunny rabbits is said to have turquoise, and the king was known in good opinion and literature, she said: The king saw that Abosna to elephants. Moreover, the rabbit was launched on the night of Qmra, and called King of the elephants and said to him: The moon has sent me to you, Vondhirk not go back to like it, and that if you did cheat your sight, and destroyed yourself, and if you are in doubt of my letter, get down to the eye of your watch, I Moafik them, and he went to the eye with Fairuz Apostle; when he looked at her, he saw the light of the moon., enter the elephant trunk in the water, moved Fajal of the elephant that the moon trembled. He said: What are the moon shudder? Really going to take me from the wrath of Khartoum in the water? Feroz said the rabbit: Yes. Prostrate elephant to the moon, and the requirement not to return to, such as this is not one of his villa
Abdullah bin Muqaffa, Panchatantra, achieving Mustafa Lutfi Muflouti Arab Book House, Beirut, Lebanon 1984 p. 262 quote
- Note the example:
Example is the story of a status-primary is the right of elephants to attract and thirst, and then process the event and Taattgly in an asylum elephants to the eye of the moon and behind that of harm to the rabbits, which played a trick on the disposal of harm to the elephants, and finally position the final of the return of stability and security to the rabbits.
In the story, we find figures of factors play a role or task in which, and observing each of these figures we find job leads within the story: factor the sender is the king of rabbits, which paysworkers the self / the hero rabbit Fairuz for a mission to mediate with the group the oppositeking of elephants, and wrath, which deprived rabbits Working the consignee which is to achieve security, stability and protection, and was the catalyst that sustains self-Manmthaho intelligence and resourcefulness.
And carefully in these factors, we find that there are ties binding them as a relationship of communication that combines the sender and the addressee by the king of rabbits (the sender) is responsible for (the addressee) security and protection, offset relationship conflict between the trick (the catalyst) and the oppression carried out by the elephants ( Working opposite), and the relationship of desire between the rabbit Fairuz factor (self) and keep the elephants from the eye of the moon (the agent subject).
Abstract:
Figures is the narrative of each participant in the events including the work done by role or roles, called the Group, and factors in the story are organized into three pairs, each pair of which constitutes the focus Tatrh one of the following relations:
Relationship communication: a semantic axis, which combines the sender between the worker and the worker of the consignee.
Alaqhalrgbh: a semantic axis, which combines between the worker and the worker self-subject.
Relationship conflict: a semantic axis, which combines the catalyst and the worker opposite.

Address the difficulties of identifying the elements of the student, and strategies

Why take into account in the organization   Treatment?
** Levels of treatment:
* The level of student
* The level of teacher  
* System-level
** Frequency error and its importance:
** Vaalo Treatment
Astrassejiat Treatment
* Processing feedback
* Repetitive Oboamal complementary therapy 
* Processing the adoption of new learning strategy 
* Changes in fundamental factors.

Identify the causes of student difficulties: subjective factors, external factors

And a variety of reasons linked to a number of factors:
** Subjective factors:
* Student's cognitive structures
* Factors associated with student incentives
* Emotional factors associated with the consignment
* The absence of self-evaluation and not to resort to methods Mitamarafah
** External factors:
* How has the Benina learning activities
* Quality Altalmat (difficulty speaking when the teacher, composition, tyranny Theoretical side of education..).
* Dominance of cognitive style in one chapter (visual, auditory, kinesthetic).
*   The nature of student response (failure, inconvenience ...).
* Lack of excitement in the domestic sphere.
*   ....

Determine the source of the error.. Accuracy in describing the error and not to the exclusion of certain assumptions about the reasons

How to find a source of the error?
The method of search for sources of error intuitive way, technical and clear at the same time:
- Intuitive, because the teacher can determine what may constitute a source of student difficulties, from:  Knowledge of substance, the student, school and track reactions and circumstances of the family, and the conditions encountered in the past.
- Technology and clear, as they may be based on different tools, diagnostic tools, which contribute to the development of hypotheses about the sources of errors, how to built.
Examine the hypotheses:
** The need for accuracy in describing the error (not to accelerate in the interpretation).
** Should not exclude some hypotheses about the causes.
** But, you must put many hypotheses (even if it seemed to us that one is forcing itself clearly (
How to examine the hypotheses?  
There are several methods to examine the hypothesis, or to exclude some hypotheses:
** Frequency error is an indication: when the student forgets in the text of ten lines, congruence between the act and does it in every sentence, it is unlikely that this is an oversight of it.
** We have some substantive elements: We can easily examined, compared with the achievements of students: the failure of most students in the answer to what Ansaal indicates a lack of a well-drafted
**   Teacher know the student, his past, central, and history.
** Teacher's intuition, which offers help with value.    
** Utilities on the diagnosis.
** ....
Note: The tools may be a multiple-choice questions (QCM ),    And we suggest that the choices are the most frequent sources of errors.

Detect errors.. Determine the error in context the work of a technical exchange

** Disclosure of errors:
The identification of errors in accordance with purely technical and important in itself, so it must be emphasized to determine the error in context.
Example: Write a letter raising a complaint to the Dean of the police.
Production of the student: (we will focus on two mistakes among other errors)
- En couleur : No fault lies with the President in addition e   To the word   couleur . But in the use of the word colère   Instead couleur (Lexical error).
-   L'un frappe L'autre et L'autre frappe l'un   The fault lies not in the omission of the point before L'autre .Not to write an introductory letter, but in the whole phrase (borrowed from Arabic).
** Error description:
Certain criteria must be adopted and a minute.
Example: Use a character somewhere else, congruence between the act and actor, congruence between the act and name, the lack of punctuation   Or use excessively
** Search for sources of error:
This stage is the stage of diagnosis of exchange:
This means that the stage careful analysis, to the extent possible distance to detect the hidden reasons for error. Through the formulation of hypotheses   Many, and examined before moving on to the treatment (because we do not know the source of knowledge of uncertainties). Taking into account different source and context of learning.

How to invest integration activity.. Knowledge of the intended target, clarify the meaning of activity, a preliminary assessment of the situation

Can not draw and only successful way to invest integration activities, the diversity of patterns and contexts and methods of teaching aids. And with that can give enlightened by the features of the methodology in the investment activities of the integration of acquisitions:
** Knowledge of the intended target,
**   Clarify the meaning of activity,
** A preliminary assessment of the situation.
Notes:
** Some students can not for the integration of a large number of gains in a single moment. It is possible to suggest positions selected
Where integration is gradual. Instead of an integration of activity at the end of the year or during the session or a set of integration activities, we can keep up with activities to learn, in brief moments. There is no doubt that this method contribute to giving meaning to Talmat. 
** Activities Calendar: similar to integration activities, but they perform the function of evaluating the achievements of pupils, so you must   Preparation and Calendar positions focusing on integration, for two reasons:
* Matched: does not make sense to evaluate the gains are separate from the student, at the time that we seek to establish the ultimate goal of integration, or to the development of adequacy.
* A strategic dimension: concentration of the formulation of calendars on integration, he went representations and perceptions of learners and parents. It is known that the assimilation, which might as educated about the calendar, which requires stirring pattern Sabzlh in Altalmat.
* It seeks to help students, as it is based on the concept of the error in order to address Nstthmrh  Identified gaps.
** We must not lose sight of the knowledge revealed to engage the student: the analysis of his mistakes, we understand how to operate, making it easier to improve we Talmath.
** Treatment without accurate diagnosis and good and from here we will talk about the way: diagnosis - treatment.

How to accomplish integration activities.. Planning of integration activities at the end of Altalmat of competence

After a series of regular Altalmat, allocated period (week, for example) to train students or students of the merger. And integration activities can be planned at the end of Altalmat sufficiency, and can be addressed through the gradual integration of the progress of the activities according to the stages of learning enough.
During the integration process, offering the student or the student and the status of the problem of competence related to the category of situations where he will discuss each student or student to resolve this situation with concern for the adoption of the work    Groups   At the beginning of these activities.
When the inability of a student or students of the solution status, the professor monitoring the fundamental difficulties
- Obstacles - that have prevented this and suggests complementary activities to raise the level of performance. To achieve this, must be given to the quality of Altalmat special attention, and make sure of being able to realization of each pupil or student, if necessary, reduced quantitatively to the maximum extent, because the development of adequacy are not related to the amount of information or knowledge obtained much as it is quality and the ability to invest in everyday life. 
Note: The planning activity to integrate into the regular learning activities, integration activities as falling within the time allocated to cover Anjasalhsso lessons as well as the cover provision for support Altthbyt school.

Importance of the integration activity.. Knowledge of the application of the rules and laws and formulas studied

Enable the integration activities of granting meaning to Talmat, where:  
**   Show the feasibility of each of the learning Altalmat: Integration of any showing that the activities of interest applied to the normal Talmat President.
Examples:
- Through a complex situation, aware of the student with suitable space and a formula known as Villa is useful to begin by identifying and unit area, which Snstgl it.
-., Known as the application of the rules and laws and formulas studied.
- Can also determine the gains that needs to be moved, depending on the type of situation.
  ** Highlight what students should learn:   Should not hesitate to propose the most complex situations, which can be resolved at the time the student is given, provided that it is able to dismantle this situation   And resolved in part or special assistance.
Example: When students learn a foreign language, we can suggest it to a text containing words or new structures   Then ask him to translate what he knew, with the translation of the words that give it does not know her interviews, and explain the structures of unknown or paid to the understanding of the context.
** Highlight the contribution of different materials: This will be achieved only at the election and the positions require the contribution of various materials, ie, to choose the positions Benuaah.
** Reveal the differences between theory and practice: During the application shows that there are mixed data      And the other must be converted prior to investing and the other should be searched. For example, to resolve some situations that require   Rule 1 and Rule 2, is not enough accumulation of rules but Mvsalthma.

How are the activities of the integration is real? Disdakticah activities do not include the procedural logic of integration

There are a Esthlan its activities, teaching aids do not include the procedural logic of integration. A  Particular activities:  
- Where the teacher is the pivotal actor.
- That lead to the accumulation and accrue earnings.
- Which is not indicative of her character.
For example:
** Report and accomplished by His teacher, summarize the lessons, check out (invoking information)
** Exercise on the area of rectangle (= simple application) If we have proposed to solve the problems of pupil function identifies himself if he will use the formula area of a rectangle or a formula surroundings, because of the confusing and incomplete data, we are integrating activity.
** Installation done by the teacher, the inference   By   Teacher (experience, demonstrating ....).
** Inference carried out by the teacher (experience, theorem).
**   Summarize the lessons.
**   Review the information requires invoking.
- Note: This does not mean at all that these   Useless activities   But one way or another contribute to the establishment of skills and capacity development.

Examples of the activities of integration or integration of acquisitions and positions

** The status of problem-solving activity: the culmination of the status of an exploratory For a group of Altalmat.
** Position continues: any activity linked Ptalmat languages. May take many different forms, provided that the functional (the description of the status of living, the completion of the end of the cartoons, directed the play, the drafting of invitations to attend the party, to comment on the story, or terminate Taatmtha).
** The position is a complex task completed in a given context: complete this task in accordance with the goal of a social nature:
writing the text in order to publish; complete a small project, designing a place, create a program of activities,
Production of audio-video editing, awareness campaign .... 
** The status of production on a particular topic: = make the student or the student personally produced pursuant to a compound which moves a certain number of gains, which must be addressed of how private, and it will take to the gains of the other. The process is an excuse to learn, it does not matter production per se, that matters as much as learning that is achieved on this occasion. This takes different forms of production to the level line mode:
* In the primary school: we talk about the expression, for example.
* In the center: we talk about certain research. And sometimes interpret the work of the search to display or publish
** The status of a field visit: But its meaning must be determined and that the production function and examine the assumptions or theory. If it means the preview   It is not the integration of activity because they do not move the gains of the student or the student, despite being in nature D.. (If related to the student Bmaich). If the student or the student is produced during the visit, the hypothesis or hypotheses and looking for information confirm or deny or assembly   Data to address them after the visit is certainly the integration of the entire activity. Accordingly, every preview of the production function are considered active Admajia
** The status of practical work and Mokhtberh (like field visits) to have to move the student activity and imposes the use of scientific method (observation, hypothesis, experimentation..)
** Position of innovation and a work of art: this is linked to the integration of innovation and creativity must be real. (Production of a literary text, draw a sculpted). The mechanical application of a series of guidance provided by the teacher to pupils or students is to create a false, ie, activity not Admagi.
** The status of practical training (vocational training or training abroad to learn the language, for example..) = integration of activity, provided that the appropriate allow the student or the student link or merge   Between theory and application, in the sense that the link between what is lived, and learn, or will be used by   (Can be training, like all integration activities, at the beginning or end of learning)
** The status of pedagogical project, a draft section:
Provided that the student or student active in the project means that it moves the gains according to a specific target.

The likeness of the common good and how we choose?

Gelesk good feel your feelings and take care of look out for and cares Bomork rejoice for joy and grief of sadness and pleased Bsrork, and he loves you what he loves for himself and hates what you hate for himself, and advised to you in your scene and Moghaipk, telling you the good and Anhak for evil and hear you with beneficial knowledge and to say sincere and great wisdom and motivates you to do righteous deeds fruitful and reminds you of God's blessings to you and thanks them know you cons yourself to Tgtenbha concerns you and what does not concern you.
Thus, AST recalled a good strain himself in your education and Tfahimk and Aslag your calendar and prompts you to work and waiting for the fruit of Your outside what instills
In within you, if overlooked stated as, and if neglected or bored shirk and warned as not in the companions of the benefit you both good and harm his evil like of which is you father II and also be the be you and the likeness of good blocking Khaltk and forgive Azeltk Oik j's Osrtk and conceal nakedness and if turned to good Gesk Rgpk it and shirk it and sequel and the reward for the pious and the staff with you when you were a Aoun it. 
If I spoke ill, or did the ugly Zgerk him and prevented him and the case between you and what you want, Gelesk good does not get tired close you do not forget the distance, and got you the best are ak and that injury from the disaster Azak satisfied If I come to talking and satisfaction by his actions and bring your councils of science and shaving male and houses worship and obedience to you decorated prayer, fasting and spending in the way of Allah and the possibility of refraining from harming rima e and good-neighborliness and beautiful cohabitation.
And condemn you to sin and reminds you of what his corruption you from woe and misery in an urgent matter and later on, and still benefit you and Ervek and Azgerk and Eodek even be a seller of musk and you the buyer and his goodness and advised him not j B p just a good a do not give you only thoroughly if you insist on buying Taibk You pour the fragrance not pass street and follow the path of the only and the fragrance of your perfume and it filled the noses and those are the people are not their Ishqy Geleshm descending upon them and mercy Vicharkhm the matter is not as bad as he says and can not do either of the fear of God or the shyness of people.
Then it is good that this condition of Gelesk good informed and better than musk Alozfr he would either tell you what will benefit you in your religious and worldly affairs, or to guide you advice or warn you of accommodation on the harm Faihzq to obey God honoring his parents and the ties of kinship and invites you to the morals and merit said and done and the case, the human wired to follow the example and the owner sits and foul spirits and conscripted soldiers led some to some ofthe good or to him in talking: «one's religion of his friend so let one of you Akhall» ( [1] ) And in the popular wisdom: «Do not ask for one and ask for a companion».
The least Tstvidh of the likeness of the common good that Tnkv because of bad deeds and sins care for companionship and competition in the good and the flying of all evil and the benefits of our companions righteous countless and, as one that is presumed and that the religion of his friend, and the corresponding bad it is Against Those all you that did not Share it negatively affects took the lion's share of satisfaction, including making and ignoring the evil fear him and warning him and all necessary precautions to save the dignity of the torn or hear for yourself or for others what they do not like it Knafaj the bellows and you sits near him to burn your body and your clothes and fills the nose smells bad and you and him in the sin It helped both to sin, even with half the word is the one who does all the talk does not solve it from idle, which is praised by Allaah Tarkih saying: ] and if they hear idle talk they withdraw from it [ [Qasas: 55] may be a strong bad sitter can not resist and denounce it all the better for you to stay away, lest he fall into the wrong Masatin silence and consent of his family.
In the councils of evil lies in the backbiting, gossiping, lying, cursing and all the obscene words and is fun and Mmala e Tarab and evildoers and match them to the wasteful spending and going into the wrong ] and if you see those who engage in Our revelations, withdraw from them until they engage in a talk other and not the devil either Incenk loose after the anniversary with a people unjust. * [ [Cattle: 68].
The greatest danger to us, such as depicted sitters bad what happened to Abi Talib, the Prophet's uncle r When death came to the Prophet r While his agony he pronounces his last breath he said to him a desire to Islam: 'O uncle, say: No god but God's word you argue with God.
He said Abu Jahl was sitting has a: Would you like for the religion of Abdul Muttalib, Allah Vrcol rDeeds. Islam, Abu Jahl deeds. Disbelief until he died, he says: It is the religion of Abdul Muttalib and refused to say: No god but God ( [2] ) Because of bad Vmassahabh sitters sitting with the wicked and harmful to all aspects of the evil keeps company with the Khalthm of how some people died because of them? How many led their friends in peril? The Almighty God said a laboratory for the consequences of evil-doers and luring them with the path of the believers and the accompanying remorse astray: ] and on the unjust bite at his hands, I say I had taken a path with the Messenger * O Ilta wish I had never taken such a close friend * This Qur'aan mentioned after it came to me and the devil to man Khdhula * [ [Al-Furqan: 27-29] The Prophet r :«Do not accompany except a believer» ( [3] ) And the poet says:
The spouse Qurain Iktd j 
And select from the friends of each guide 
Increase in heart sick Sakka 
The company of the wicked disease and blindness 
Vajtneben couples bad 
Followed the Sunnah of the Prophet 
Said r «Likeness of the good and likeness of bad bearer of musk and works the bellows Vhaml musk a. What Ihvek, and either buy it or you smells of good A and works the bellows will either burn your clothes and either a n find smells of malignant» ( [4 ] ) The Messenger of Allah r What Eruah such as portrayed to us the fact that likeness and the resulting benefit or harm and the good or evil, and good or slag and the truth of God Almighty says: ] Say Not equal are evil and good if you like the large number of malignant So fear Allah, O men of understanding, that ye may prosper. * [ [Table: 100] God and guide us to righteous companions and friends, mentors and Xena as faith and make us a guided remission Maine, O Lord of the Worlds and peace be upon Muhammad and upon his family and him.
([1] ) Narrated by Abu Dawood and Tirmidhi and classed.
([2] ) To talk about the death of Abu Talib in the correct way.
([3] ) Narrated by Ahmad, Abu Dawood and Tirmidhi and Ibn Hibbaan and the Governor and the symbol for the health Suyuti.
([4] ) Bukhari and Muslim.

Of human brotherhood in God

And the rights of this brotherhood as follows:
1 - Consolation money ([1] ) Vyuasi each brother with his money that he needs it, so be Danarhma Drhmanma and one of no difference between them which, as it was narrated from Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him as a man came to him and said: I want to Oaakhik in God, he said: Do you know what the right fraternity? He said he introduced me, he said: «not be more right and Bidinark Darhamk me» he said, did not report this status yet, he said, go me.
2 - to be both helpful to the owner and by relieving himself on the same conditions as inspecting inspecting the same conditions, and offers them the Himself, his family and his children, and asks him after every three, the patient was a habit, and thathelped him was busy, but said he forgot welcome if born, and expands it if it sat down, and listen to it if it occurs. 
3 - to stop his tongue, except for good, there is very little drawback of in his absence or his presence and explores the secrets, does not attempt to look to the crypt itself and if you saw him on his way to the needs of the needs of the same is not Avatha mentioned, does not attempt to identify the source or supplier, be kind in his kindly, or prohibitions of vice, not to speak Emarih and prerogatives to the right or wrong, not in something Aatbh Aattab not in another.
4 - to give him from his tongue what he loves him, make him love the names to him and reminded him well for the backbiting and the audience, informing him praise people it, the appearance of awelcomed this, and joy of it, not voyager advised him Fiklgah, and advises him in front of people Vivdha, as Imam Shafei Almighty God's mercy: the preaching of the mystery of his brother advised him and adorns it, and preaching publicly expose the NH of Osh.
5 - pardon when he slipped up, Wet N Ady for Hvoa T e, Leicester flaws, and improve its and his mistreatment, and committed the sin, the mystery of a publicly and do not interrupt love him, but does not forget his brothers, but waiting for his repentance and Opth, is a grate he Srema and pieces, or to maintain the brothers with the provision of advice, counsel and continue to hope that God should repent repent it.
Abu Darda said, may Allah be pleased with him: «If you change your brother, and asked if he had not left him for that, the brother perverteth the judgment-time correct again».
6 - to meet him in the brotherhood abide by and perpetuates the past, because the frustrating parts of the reward even if he dies the transfer of affection to his children, and followers of his friends, aprovince on the Juh and loyalty to its owner, the Messenger of Allah Akram r The old man entered upon him, told him that, he said: «It comes days were Khadija, and generosity of the reign of religion» ([2] ).
It is meet that the enemy does not endorse his friend, who said Shafie Almighty God's mercy: If your enemy is your friend obeyed, except in the end, they and Tech.
7 - that does not cost him what is difficult for him, and not to let what he does not feel comfortable with him not trying to draw him something of a prestige or money, or he has to do the work, as the brothers were out to God should not be turned to bring the benefits of the other world, and apayment of the injured, and also does not cost him does not make it cost him a LLC in breach of both the influential brotherhood Menks reward of what is intended, he should turn the table with him and committed to affectation and reservation, because by y e contrary to the solitude you get familiar.
It says in effect: «I am devoutly my innocent of Baroque», said some of the righteous: the landed cost, as long as written by, and eased Maonth long as they love him, and any fall of the cost of the positive E for Anas, and gilded the loneliness that do brother in the house of his brother's four characteristics: the eat in his house and enters the toilet with him, and pray and sleep with him, If he does this have The fraternity, rose modestly, be deemed to be loneliness, and found company, make sure extraversion.
8 - to invite him and his children, and by the fine reason for himself and his children is related to it, with no difference between one and the other by virtue of brothers that brought them should ask a neighborhood of the dead of the present A and absent the said peace be upon him: « If a man calls his brother in the back of the unseen King said: You like that »([3] ) And said one of the righteous: a yen, such as the good brother? The people died when a man divided his inheritance and what are behind, and brother, good grief is unique, interested in what his brother gave him, and it became, by p and has in the darkness of the night, and ask forgiveness for him as he was buried under the dishes, and the God of strength.
([1] ) Assistance and assistance.
([2] ) Narrated by the ruling and correct it.
([3] ) Narrated by Muslim.

Ethics brothers in God, love and hatred in which the Almighty

Muslim by virtue of his faith in God does not love, if love only God, not hate, if hate only in God, because he does not love only what he loves Allah and His Messenger, nor hate but what he hates God and His Messenger, he is as August the love of God and His Messenger love and b Bgdahma jregardless, and the evidence in this saying of the Prophet r «God of love and hate God and God gave and God has been completed to prevent the faith» ([1] ).
Based on this All the righteous servants of Allah loves the Muslim and Ewalém,
and all of God's immoral for the order of Allah and His Messenger, hates and is hostile towards them, but this is not anti-Muslim brothers and friends to take theirs in God's love, and M. Zaid Widad, E. The Messenger rTo take Like those brothers and friends, saying: «A believer is familiar, and the best one who is not familiar with writing a» ([2] ). 
And he said: «The around the throne, pulpits of light for people to dress light, and their faces light are not prophets and martyrs, Agbthm prophets and martyrs» They said: O Messenger of God, he called us and said: «Thais Love Thais in God, and Almottagalson in God, and Almetzoron in God» ([ 3] ) And saying r «God Almighty says: damage to those who visit one another love for me, and my love for those who suffered Atnasron for me» ([4]).
And he said: «seven shade with God in the shade on the Day no shade but His shade: the imam of a just, and a young man grew up in the worship of God, the man whose heart hangs the mosque if it comes out of it to get back to him and two men Thaba in God Vajtmaa on that, and dispersed it, and a remembrance of Allah free of , when his son called him a woman and a man and is beautiful and he said: I fear Allah, and a man gives charity a P Khvaha up north do not know what his right hand spent »([5] ).
And saying r : «The man visited a brother to him in God Versd God has a king, he said:Where do you want? Said I want a n a false a so and so a chi-He said: you need him? Said?'s A, he told about you and him? He said: No, he said: Vbenama you to him? He said: No, he said: Fbm? Said: love of God », he said:« Here, God sent me to tell you that he loves to love him, has enjoined you to Paradise »([6] ).
(This and the requirement of a Juh) to be God in God so free of impurities Alaúgaha physical world and the college, and be motivated by faith in God is not.
The literature is taken to be a n a g a:
1 - wise, for NH is not a good in the brotherhood and companionship fool, a LLC may harm a folly of the ignorant of where he wants to work.
2 - good manners, bad manners, as though a reasonable person may beat lust or controlled anger Vecee to the owner.
3 - a pious because the reprobate out of obedience to his Lord does not believe his side, as might be committing a crime against the owner does not care or brotherhood with others who do not fear because God does not fear other in any way.
4 - a lieutenant of the book and the year away from superstition and heresy, as an innovator might have for his friend from doom his innovation, because innovation and his passion Ahjrthma Mtaana, and their boycott of the crisis, how can Khalthma, their friendship has summarized this literature in the selection of his companions a righteous he recommended his son: My son offered if you need the company of men than if his Vasahb Sank, and accompanied by Zank, though he sat for your hoard Munk, he accompanies the extended your hand if you provide it okay, but you saw the promise of good, but felt bad bridged: Asahb than if I asked him and that gave you Aptdak silent, but I got you coming down and Isaac, he accompanies from the truth if I say, and you have tried something a n a aMerck, but something a Tnazaatma Therk ».
([1] ) Narrated by Abu Dawood and others.
([2] ) Narrated by Ahmad and al-Tabaraani, the Governor and corrected.
([3] ) Narrated by women which is true.
([4] ) Narrated by Ahmad and classed as saheeh by the ruling.
([5] ) Bukhari.
([6] ) Narrated by Muslim.

Love of God and hatred of God also

In the correct from Aisha, may Allah be on Prophet r He said: «What is life like conscripted soldiers, including long relationship Aútlv and antipathy which differed» This brotherhood is privately held by the Messenger of Allah r Among his companions, the brothers have learned that the public in the words of Allah: ] believers are brothers [ [Rooms: 10] is a reality, including his contract before it has increased your command.
These brothers are, according to which love of God Almighty which is closer bonds of faith to love in God and hate in God, and among the seven whom Allaah will shade shade on the Day no shade but His men Thaba in God met him and dispersed it, and in Saheeh Muslim Abu Hurayrah may Allah be pleased with him that the Messenger of Allah r Said: «God Almighty says the Day of Resurrection: Where Thais Love Thais Bjellala? Ozlhm in Zla day no shade but Zla» Imaam Ahmad and the attribution is true for bin silent worship may Allah be pleased with himsaid: I heard the Messenger of Allah r Says as he narrated it from his Lord: «damage to love one another in love, and love for the damage sustained and suffered in the love of Metzaorén in, and sustained love for Mtbazlin in», and conversations in this sense too many. 
And brothers in God and began a friendship required, printing of Almighty God said: ] who hail his victory and with the believers [ Their sense of your strength ] between their hearts and A. [ Combine them in love.
What is meant by the verse Aws and Khazraj They are fans, God bless them, were among them enmity in ignorance motion, is among them, and that of the most amazing verses were with Enfé severe if slapping a man to have fought with him his tribe, do their Islam to kill the man his son and his father, in obedience to God Almighty, Mosque between Muslims and Islam has gained him a genuine friendship, they must do so for the rights of each other.
In correct for Nu'man bin Bashir, may Allah be pleased with him that the Prophet r Said: «The believers in their mutual love, mercy and compassion, such as if the body prevent the member complained Z decrepitude, the rest of the body restlessness and fever». And two from Abu Musa may Allah be pleased with him that the Prophet r He said: «The believers are like a single structure pull together and clasped between his fingers».
I know that this reward in this love can only be if they are in God's pure is not marred by muddy, and if stronger love of God Almighty in the heart stronger love of his heirs and the righteous of His servants, let him look human Aaakhi and love should not elect to only probe the mind and religion.
Narrated by Imam Ahmad, Tirmidhi and the ruling and said: It is true attachment and al-Bayhaqi and others from Maaz bin Anas may Allah be pleased with him that the Messenger of Allah r Said: «God who gave to God and to prevent and loved God and hated God and I marry God has completed the faith» and Narrated by Abu Dawood from Abu Umaamah similar report and not in it: «I marry and to God» ( [1] ).
Of the causes of love and harmony among Muslims
The law of God in Islam things cause a harmony and love among Muslims include the following:
1 - the legality of the performance of the five daily prayers in congregation in mosques where the Muslims come together on the day and night, five times Viarefon and composed and delivered at one another and shake hands with some of each and all of the causes of love and harmony and the demise of the intersection of the Muslims.
2 - Friday prayers at the mosque where he will meet the residents of the neighborhood will collect the meeting between the family greets each other, The presence of residents in one place and pray behind the imam of one mosque and one listening to the sermon and exhortation all of the causes of sociability and friendship and cooperation and the Union of the word.
3 - Allaah has enjoined Hajj, the one who is able to time at the age of e shall meet Muslims from all over the world in one place, clothing, one at a time of worship the Lord and one of Viarefon and composed and cooperate and solve their problems and unite their word.
4 - Afsha peacebuilding among Muslims, if some peace, some got so familiarity with and love as the Prophet r «Do not enter Paradise until you believe do not believe until you love one another only tell you of something if you did you will love one another greeting of peace»Narrated by Muslim, and asked r Islam is any good? Said: «food and feed to read the peace of the known and not known» Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.
5 - will increase the exchange of gifts in love and go Alah s Ed Aahina, free Althajr M. Islam and Muslims, said the intersection of r «It is not permissible for a Muslim to forsake his brother for three nights they meet this presents and presents and Khiarhama who greets»Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim ( [2] ).
May Allaah send blessings and peace upon our Prophet Muhammad and his companions and companions Alyalh,,,
([1] ) See food kernels explain the system of Arts for Saffarini (2 / 473-475).
([2] ) See the book to remind Ashaúar Insights (673).

One the one I love

From Anas, may Allah be pleased with him that the Prophet r Said: «Be three of them has found the sweetness of faith from God and His Messenger are dearer to him than all else, and I like Abdul does not like the only God, and hates to return to kufr after Allaah has saved him as he would hate to be thrown into the fire» In the novel : «Three of the Be it found the sweetness of faith and taste to be God and His Messenger are dearer to him than others, and love in God and hate in God, and that glow a great fire is located where I like it that involves God something a»
 Bukhari, Muslim and others.
Abu Hurayrah may Allah be pleased with him: «that a man visited a brother in the village of Versd Madrjtah God for a king when he came he said: Where do you want?» Said: I want a brother to me in this village. He said: Do you by the grace of Terbha? He said: No. But I love him in God, he said: I am the Messenger of Allah to you that God may love you as I loved it »Narrated by Muslim.
Included are the road and saying (Terbha) any of you seeking in the repair and Anas, may Allah be pleased with him: that a man asked the Messenger of Allah r When time? Said: «What have I prepared?» He said nothing but I love Allah and His Messenger, he said: «You are with the loved» Anas said: What some joy joy words of the Prophet r «I loved you with» Anas said: I love the Prophet r And Abu Bakr and Omar and I hope that I my love with them, narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.
Ibn Masood said, may Allah be pleased with him: A man came to the Messenger of Allah r He said: O Messenger of Allah, how do you see a man who loved the people of did not cause them? He said:«you the one I love» Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, saying: not attached to them which did not work like their work, Return trusts of these conversations to the virtue of love of God and His Messenger, and the righteous slaves and encourage them and God Mlazemtha and conciliation.

Terms of brotherhood in God

The brothers in God's essential conditions be interrupted only by the contract and can not be Mq bwith God Almighty only be pursuing the process of Muslims and take Hold unto these.
And to you, the most important Muslim Juh a Cheraútha showed a fundamental Tha perhaps be the memory of those who have a heart, or hearing a martyr, namely:
1 - to be an exclusive fraternity of God.
2 - to be brothers in God coupled with faith and piety.
3 - The brothers are committed to the path of Islam.
4 - to be of a Juh-based advice to God and His slaves said peace be upon him «debt advice» said it three times, they said: To whom, O Messenger of God? Said: «God, to His Book, His Prophet and the imams of the Muslims and their common folk» Narrated by Muslim.
A means of deepening the spirit of brotherhood ( [1] ):
Showed the means to deepen the spirit of brotherhood as follows:
1 - If a man loves his brother Vlabrh he loves.
2 - If his brother died, let him ask him to pray for him absence.
3 - If the brother killed his brother Vlataleg face when meeting any particular Algah exultant in human beings and the hill P and i smile.
4 - If the brother killed his brother Filipader to shake hands and greet him.
5 - to visit a lot of his Muslim brother from time to time.
6 - to congratulate him and introduces him pleasure when happy occasions.
7 - to comfort him and Islah and Yuasih when calamities.
8 - to help him and assisted when needed.
9 - to lead a full human brotherhood.
There is no doubt in God, brethren, that the brother if the implementation of these means towards his Muslim brother fully closer bonds of affection between them and the deeper meanings of love And strengthened the brotherhood of Islam between the two.
([1] ) See a message of Islamic brotherhood.

The concept of brotherhood

Is an association of psychological inherited a deep sense of passion and love and respect, with all of the links as and him the bonds of the Islamic faith and the pillars of faith and piety, this sense of brotherly sincere born in the same Muslim believe noble emotions in positive attitudes of cooperation and altruism, compassion and forgiveness when estimated, and the negative attitudes of stay away from all that hurts the people in themselves and their money, honor and dignity and prejudice of Islam has urged the brothers in God and the requirements and Mltzmadtha in many verses of the Koran and the hadith Allah says:
 ] believers are brothers [ [Rooms: 10] He says: ] and remember the grace of God upon you when you were enemies of the motion, between your hearts Vosubhtm brothers by His grace [ [Al-Imran: 103]
He said peace be upon him: «None of you believes until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself» Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, and a result of this brotherhood and love in God to handle members of the Muslim community throughout history and through the ages to the best of what people deal sympathy and altruism, cooperation and interdependence. 
So what if he knows you, O youth of Islam but the door Tjawa brothers in God and their meanings to achieve your hearts you will be with you on the womb of the termination of your enemies are strong and tough Mtasin the Messenger of Allah r Besha bits and customers, whom he called Allah by saying: ] Muhammad Messenger of Allah and those with him are severe against disbelievers and merciful among themselves [ [Al-Fath: 29] ( [1] ) and the God of strength.
([1] ) See Raising Children in Islam by Shaykh Abdullah Alwan (1 / 362, 
363).

How to avoid lying

O brothers and that we know that some of the effects of lying and the punishment is, perhaps someone were to say: I want to repent to God of lying, but how do I prevent myself from something I used it? For this and others like you say the following matters:
1 - invoked the greatness of God trusted him, of lying often caused by fear of imaginary things and portrays the devil, and trust in God and trust in Him will guarantee spoken of those concerns.
2 - sure that what is written you CEATEC inevitably, especially in matters of this world which, because of greed, where and to ensure the collection of people present on a lie, but faith and unswerving confidence that what for you by Allah CEATEC, earning the human tranquility and Ihuge to lie in his speech.
3 - Sports psychology, the intention here Download the self to the work required by the character required, the same like a child and if unleashed Otapetk and tamed mean Tsberha the creatures you want time after time until it becomes creation, of course, nor despair or Tstthagl at the beginning of the road because it needs patience, and try it usually lies with the bad and you will feel after a period of uprooted them and become among the truthful} and who fought us surely guide them to our ways {} And whosoever fears Allah makes him a way out {divorce: 2].
Muslim brother: But you know that you have license to lie in certain matters, including in the war and reform among the people, and modern men and women talk to his wife and her husband, as stated in the hadeeth narrated by Muslim Riyaadh 693.
In the inevitable ambiguity of lying:
Muslim brother: I do not belittle anything, not lying Tcoln This is a lie does not hurt anyone, or that a small child and Sakzb him not to do so, he saw the Messenger of Allah r A woman calls her children Almighty says: give you the Messenger of Allah said to her, r : «What would give?» Said: I will give him as well, he said peace be upon him: «As if you did not give him the lie you wrote» as well as do not lie and then say: but I went to this joke, the Messenger r Says: «I am the leader of a house in the middle of Paradise for those who left lying albeit jokingly» Bayhaqi a good chain.
But the best way you lie if I had to equivocation, that speaks something potentially more than one meaning it means the mind of your friend to what is in your heart without being belied by the modern, for example, is narrated from Nakha'i that when he requested from the hate out at him in the house , said of the ongoing tell him: Order in the mosque and tell him not here so as not to be a lie.
May Allaah help us and you honesty in word and deed, and blessings of Allah be upon our Prophet Muhammad and grant him peace.

The ugliest pictures lying: perjury to promote the product, taking a Muslim's wealth by false oaths, lying in a dream

Lying the whole ugly, but ugliness with the owner receives a stern warning from God, and the following pictures reveal some of these ugly images.
A - the right to promote the false Item:
Says peace be upon him: «three do not speak to them the Day of Resurrection Allah will not look at them: Mannan Battiyth, and spent his goods for NATO, immoral and garment Almspl» Reported by Muslim.
B - taking a Muslim's wealth by false oaths:
In this he says peace be upon him «swears an oath to sin to cut into the wealth of a man unlawfully killed a Muslim, God is angry with him» Agreed.
He also says: «to cut his right hand the right of a Muslim who Allah has commanded and forbidden Paradise to him, although the rod of Arak» Reported by Muslim.
C - Lying in a dream:
Is that you say: that he saw in a dream such and such, a liar, and said that Mustafa r «Avery falsehoods that a man sees his eyes unless Eritrea» Bukhari.
He also says: «the dream of dreams has not been seen to take place between the cost and will not do Sairtin» Bukhari.

Lesions of the tongue lying

Lying is bad from the scourge of the tongue lesions, and mental illness, if treatment is not promptly claimed by the owner to the fire, a bad decision.
If the slogan of honesty, the faithful of the signs of lying hypocrites, Allah says:} If the hypocrites come to you see you said to the Messenger of God, and God knows you to His Messenger and Allah bears witness that the hypocrites are liars {hypocrites: 1].
My brother-Karim: The violation of the clear and common in our society, lies in the use of word and deed, and in the sale and purchase, in contracts and appointments .. And the leniency of the order lying until people have been brought up young and has no qualms about adults.
And ordered to lie very dangerous as it is haraam things that lead a person to Hell, it even said the prayer «The lie
Leads to immorality and immorality leads to Hell A man is lying and lying until he was checking with God a liar »Agreed. 
False and no matter how hard it must cover the same God that reveals that sooner or later, ashamed of his sin and false, do not surprised if you do not Astouhh comrade near him.
Not that bad goods, what makes you Muslim brother to deal with it?

Status problem teaching aids.. Provide an opportunity for students to understand new perspectives on the concept of a specific

Situation which is organized by the teacher for the whole chapter, in the context of knowledge, and learn new skills.
  And determined   Raynal et Rieunier1997 Being: teaching position formulated by the teacher to:
** Create a space of reflection and analysis of a problem to be solved or an obstacle to be overcome ByMartinand).
**. Provide an opportunity for students to understand new perspectives on the concept of a particular basis of this   Space - the problem Espace problème (Called De Ketele and Rogiers X. This situation, the status of exploration).
= Position in the context of an educational learning meaningful and the meaning of the learner, designed to upset the structure of knowledge in order to build the new place Altalmat competence
This situation is characterized by:
** The status of exploration are at the beginning of the lesson.
** Allow mobilization of the gains of integrated
** Guide the learner to accomplish the task of meaningful teaching and learning, social, cultural, or ethical or ...
** Carries the meaning of autonomy for the learner in his own life or the public.
** Pose a challenge for the learner in its approach; where unable to find a solution, and therefore feels that he desperately need to acquire the adequacy of a particular situation to approach an effective way. Thus generated has the desire to learn, this is called job teaching aids for this kind of situations. A function on the effectiveness of incentive to build Altalmat associated with competence, not T, but an exercise approach to the problem or the problem is.

Terms of the formulation of the learning situation.. Contact with the reality of the learner and running in the orbit of interest

Taken into account in the formulation of the learning situation a number of conditions, including:
** Exact determination of what is expected of the learner
** Prevail upon the problematic character, as it is recommended that the position formulated in the form of puzzle requires the learners to resolve.
** Ensure that position and touch the reality of the student and are interested in an orbit, in order to encourage them to contribute effectively to resolve the situation, because, in these conditions, see as linked to it and are not imposed on it.
** Be careful not to simplify the situation to the degree of vulgarity, so that the learner that he faces, has already asked to solve a problem,
As well as careful not to be a difficult situation (beyond the level of student cognitive, mental and socio - cultural ...) Anverh of thinking to resolve.

The concept of class positions.. If you select enough for the condition and one practice is the second conclusion of the adequacy of the special and ordinary

Recognize sufficiently well as for the class of situations (same category), any set of positions converged with each other. If selected for the adequacy of the condition and one practice is the second conclusion of the adequacy of the special and ordinary. On the contrary, if the positions were very far apart from each other, do not put the learner in similar circumstances to ensure efficiency. In practice it comes to searching for some positions that are equivalent   Among them. Adequacy example: "Driving a car in the city":
** Positions are Different types of paths, at different moments, in adverse weather conditions Different in different Aktdadat, .... etc..
** Tracks are different Different positions belong to the same class (or family) positions.

Constants limit the category of situations.. The degree of complexity, the desired level of accuracy, the volume of production, materials or means available to accomplish

To ensure that the equation   Situations must be distinguished between class positions through some of the constants of nature with the following:
** All linked to the support or carrier status, or to offer or give the learner:
* The text of certain scientific, to a certain level of difficulty and a certain length (3 constants).
* Decree requires mathematical problem to three key processes. (2 constants)
* Impact of historic pattern, and a certain era (2 constants).
* .... Etc..
Example: In the technical drawing of the positions identified in 3 parameters:
* You must be available in 12 rooms and the interface at the most.
* You must be a flat interfaces.
* You must be a list of Ka angles.
** Can be associated with constants   The pattern of activity or task: the degree of complexity, the desired level of accuracy, the volume of production, materials or means available to accomplish .... etc..

Property function of the situation.. Granting the desire of the learner in moving the gains

Position function is the situation of the learner move, give him the desire to move the gains, and give the meaning of what he wants to learn: it is related to the cognitive component of learning, any investment component Almertat learner who is ready for acceptance and approval in Altalmat. And change the property status of the function of many of the learning level to another and from one context to another. It shows in many ways, and in particular the situation when the function:
** Drag or lead the learner to move its centers of immediate interest.
** Shall be subject to challenge, or that it was a way that shows the learner faces a challenge in their pocket or purse.
** Valid to him directly: such as: being able to progress in the work is complex.
** Being able to put knowledge in the contexts of power to detect or the benefit of different knowledge,
** Be able to explore the boundaries of the areas of application of this knowledge.
** Paid to epistemological thinking   Knowledge about, and ask questions about building   Knowledge:
    How built? How was the transfer? By whom? What are the principles supported? And at any end?
** Able to detect differences between theory and application, which includes data Kalachkalat confused, incomplete data, data, we must convert them before use, multiple solutions.
** Enables the detection of supply of various materials to solve complex problems,
** Enable learners to measure the difference between what is known to resolve the situation and what needs to be complicated to learn ... etc.  
+ + + Function shows that the property can appear in several levels, linked to components of the situation.And can be linked to:
** Context: Kmlamsh learner in live, in its centers of interest
** Occupation: student as payment for progress in the work is complex.
** Information: Kakoshv the difference between theory and application.  
** Mission: Kkon learner faces a challenge.
+ + +, Therefore, must act on the total vehicle position to give the latter function property.

أسباب ارتفاع معدلا ت المواليد في الوطن العربي.. قلة نسبة النساء العاملات في الوطن العربي أدى الي عدم وجود عوائق أمام كثرة الإنجاب

النمو الطبيعي هو الفرق بين معدلات المواليد والوفيات او ما بعد الوطن العربي من اكثر مناطق العالم.
ومن أسباب ارتفاع معدلا ت المواليد في الوطن العربي:
- نظرة المجتمع الريفي والرعوي الي زيادة المواليد بسبب الدافع الديني فالاسلام يحث علي الإنجاب والتوليد.
- قلة نسبة النساء العاملات في الوطن العربي أدى الي عدم وجود عوائق أمام كثرة الإنجاب.
- انخفاض معدلات الوفيات في الوطن العربي.
يصل معدل الزيادة الطبيعية في الوطن العربي الي اكثر من 3.1، ولذا يصنف الوطن العربي ضمن الاقاليم ذات النمو السريع لمرور معظم دولة بمرحلة الانفجار السكاني، لذلك تصنيف الدول العربية حسب اثر النمو السكاني الي قسمين هنا:
- دول لم يكن للنمو السكاني السريع فيها اثر علي اقتصادها.
- دول تاثرت بالنمو السكاني رغم امكانياتها الاقصادية.
النمو غير الطبيعي:
ويقصد به الهجرة الوافدة الي الوطن العربي وخاصة بعد ظهور النفط في دول الخليج العربي.

مستقبل الموارد المائية في الوطن العربي

مستقبل الموارد المائية في الوطن العربي:
- شُح الموارد المائية.
- ثبات مصادرها.
- هدر المُتاح منها.
- والنمو السكاني السريع.
- والتطور المتزايد في المشروعات الاقتصادية جعل من الضرورة البحث عن خطوات صارمة لتحقيق الأمن المائي العربي ويقدر مجموع كميات المياه في الوطن العربي حوالي 349 مليار م3 يستغل منها 175 مليا م3 تقريبا بينما يقدر الفائض المائي بـ 175 مليار م3.

وسائل تحقيق الأمن المائي العربي.. التوصل الي حلول للمشكلات المائية مع دول الجوار الجغرافي واختيار وسائل التقنية الحديثة التي تسهم في ترشيد استخدام المياه

* العناصر الرئيسة لمفهوم الأمن المائي العربي:
- المحافظة علي الموارد المائية المتاحة.
- ترشيد استخدام الموارد المائية.
- البحث عن مصادر مائية جديدة.
* وسائل تحقيق الأمن المائي العربي:
- تعزيز التعاون المائي بين الدول العربية وإقامة المشاريع المائية المشتركة.
- محاولة بعض الدول العربية المحافظة علي المياه وحمايتها من السلب.
- محاولة التوصل الي حلول للمشكلات المائية مع دول الجوار الجغرافي.
- إنشاء مراكز أبحاث للمياه لإعداد الدارسات العلمية الدقيقة.
- إجراء المزيد من المسوحات الجيولوجية للكشف عن مصادر مائية جديدة.
- اختيار وسائل التقنية الحديثة التي تسهم في ترشيد استخدام المياه.
ومن أمثلة ذلك:
* استخدام الطرق الحديثة في الري بالتنقيط والرش.
* التوسع في إعادة استخدام المياه المُعالجة في زراعة الأشجار.
* استثمار مياه الأنهار التي تذهب مياهها هدارا الي البحار أو المحيطات.

تحلية مياه البحر في الوطن العربي.. قلة مصادر المياه العذبة

- نظرا لقلة مصادر المياه العذبة اتجهت الأنظار الي البحر لتأمين احتياجاتها من المياه الصالحة للشرب.
- تعد دول الخليج العربي أكثر الأقطار العربية اعتمادا علي هذه الموارد.
- أنشأت كل منها عدة محطات لتحلية مياه البحر وصل إنتاجها علي حوالي 15 مليون م 3 سنويا.

المياه الجوفية في الوطن العربي.. العيون والينابيع. الآبار الجوفية السطحية. الآبار الجوفية العميقة الارتوازية. الأفلاج

- دلت الدراسات الجيولوجية علي وجود خزانات ضخمة للمياه.
- تظهر المياه الجوفية علي الأرض بعدة أشكال هي :
* العيون والينابيع:
وأهمها ينابيع وعيون بلاد الشام التي تزود بعض الأنهار.
* الآبار: يوجد نوعان من الآبار وهي:
- الآبار الجوفية السطحية:
وهي التي يحفرها الانسان للحصول علي المياه الجوفية السطحية.
-الآبار الجوفية العميقة (الارتوازية):
تحفر هذه الآبار في مناطق المياه الجوفية العميقة التي تجمعت خلال الزمنية الجيولوجية القديمة.
- الأفلاج: هي قنوات يحفرها الانسان عند أقدام الجبال.

مناخ الوطن العربي صيفا.. الضغط المنخفض الاستوائي الدائم. المرتفع الآزوري. الرياح الموسمية الجنوبية الغربية القادمة من المحيط الهادي

يتأثر الوطن العربي في فصل الصيف بعدة ضغوط جوية تتمثل فيما يأتي:
- الضغط المنخفض الاستوائي الدائم.
- نطاقات الضغط المرتفع الآزوري في شمال وسط المحيط الأطلسي.
- الرياح والأمطار ويتعرض الوطن العربي في فصل الصيف لهبوب رياح مختلفة هي:
- الرياح التجارية الجافة الشمالية الشرقية.
- الرياح الموسمية الجنوبية الغربية القادمة من المحيط الهادي والتي تسبب في سقوط الأمطار بمشيئة الله علي وسط السودان واليمن وعسير.

تأثير الضغط الجوي في مناخ الوطن العربي.. الضغط الجوي المنخفض الاستوائي. الضغط المرتفع الآزوري الدائم. الانخفاضات الجوية والأعاصير على البحر المتوسط

 يتأثر مناح الوطن العربي شتاء بالضغوط الجوية التالية:
* الضغط الجوي المنخفض الاستوائي الذي يمتد مع الضغط المنخفض المتمركز علي المحيطين الهندي والأطلسي جنوبا.
* الانخفاضات الجوية والأعاصير على البحر المتوسط.
* الضغط المرتفع على آسيا وأوروبا.
* الضغط المرتفع الآزوري الدائم.

العوامل المؤثرة في تضاريس الوطن العربي.. الحركات الالتوائية. حركات الانكسار والتصدع. عوامل التعرية المائية والبحرية والهوائية

1- العوامل الباطنية (الداخلية):
وتشمل الحركات الالتوائية التي نتج عنها الجبال (أطلس وجبال زاجروس وكردستان والجبل الأخضر في سلطنة عمان).
حركات الانكسار والتصدع أدت إلى تكوين الأخدود الأفريقي الآسيوي العظيم.
الثورات البركانية وما نتج من حمم وحرات بركانية.
2-العوامل الظاهرية (الخارجية):
وتشمل عوامل التعرية المائية والبحرية والهوائية وينقسم الوطن العربي إلى خمس وحدات طبيعية هي:
1- المشرق العربي.
2- شبة الجزيرة العربية.
3- حوض النيل.
4- المغرب العربي.
5- القرن الإفريقي.
* ساهمت العوامل الباطنية وعوامل التعرية والجفاف في تنوع مظاهر السطح.

مكانه الوطن العربي بالنسبة للعالم.. مهد الديانات السماوية وموطن للحضارات العالمية القديمة ومحط أنظار الشعوب الأخرى بعلومه وآدابه

بالإضافة إلى أهمية الوطن العربي الجغرافية والاستراتيجية فإنه يتمتع ب..
* أولا مهد للديانات السماوية:
بأهميته الدينية ففيه نزلت الرسالات السماوية (اليهودية والمسيحية والإسلامية).
* نشأت علي أرضة أقدم الحضارات العالمية مثل:
- الحضارة الفرعونية علي ضفاف نهر النيل.
- السومارية والآشورية علي ضفاف نهري دجلة والفرات.
- حضارات شبة الجزيرة العربية وبلاد الشام.
- محط أنظار الشعوب الأخرى بعلومه وآدابه وقد ساعد في الوصول إلى تفوقه هذا عدة عوامل منها:
1- نشأت علي أرضه أقدم الحضارات العالمية.
2- استفادت الأقطار المجاورة من هذه الحضارات.
3- توافد الباحثون وعلماء الآثار من جميع أقطار العالم.

الكتابة النثرية في العصر العباسي.. النثر القصصي. النثر الاجتماعي. الرسائل الديوانية. الرسائل الإخوانية. التوقيعات

تشمل الكتابة النثرية الآتي:
1- النثر القصصي: إذ ظهرت المقامات في صور حكايات قصيرة.
(ولا تنس أن المقامات شهدت اهتماماً من علماء اللغة لما فيها من ألفاظ غريبة نتج عنه ثراء لغوي كذلك وجد علماء البلاغة فيها ثراء في البديع والبيان.. إلا أن علماء الأخلاق رفضوها لما فيها من احتيال للتكسب والاستجداء). 
2- النثر الاجتماعي: و فيه يعالج الأديب قضية عامة في المجتمع.
3- الرسائل الديوانية: تصدر من الحاكم وتتعلق بشئون السياسة والحكم.
4- الرسائل الإخوانية: للتهنئة بين الأصدقاء أو العتاب.
5- التوقيعات: وهي تأشيرات قصيرة فيها تلخيص وتمتاز بدقة الفكرة وعمقها.

عوامل ومظاهر نهضة النثر في العصر العباسي الثاني.. التطور العقلي في الأدب والفلسفة والاستفادة من الحضارات الأجنبية والامتزاج الشديد بين العرب وغيرهم

عوامل نهضة النثر في العصر العباسي:
1- الامتزاج الشديد بين العرب وغيرهم.
2- التطور العقلي في الأدب والفلسفة.
3- الاستفادة من الحضارات الأجنبية.
4- الحرية التي أتيحت لأبناء الأمم الأجنبية  فنشرت ثقافتهم وترجمت للغة العربية.
مظاهر نهضة النثر وارتقائه:
1- أصبح ينافس الشعر.
2- اتسعت موضوعاته وتعددت فنونه.
3- ظهرت مذاهب فنية متميزة فيه.
أنواع النثر وفنونه: النثر له ثلاثة أنواع هي: النثر الأدبي، النثر العلمي، النثر العلمي المتأدب.

ملامح الحياة العلمية في العصر العباسي الثاني.. تأليف المعاجم وارتقاء الفلسفة وظهورفن المقامات

ازدهرت الناحية العلمية أوائل هذا العصروظهر ذلك في تأليف المعاجم، وارتقاء الفلسفة، وظهورفن المقامات وزادت فروع العلم آنذاك إلى حوالي (300) فرع، ولكنها ضعفت آخر هذا العصر، والسبب استيلاء الأتراك (السلاجقة) علي بغداد، وهم لا يفهمون اللغة العربية، لكنها ظلت قوية في مصر، والسبب اهتمام الفاطميين ثم الأيوبيين بهذه النهضة، والدليل علي ذلك تأليف الموسوعات الكبيرة والمعاجم الجامعية.